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Proposals for three articulated symposia at the ECER congress 2002 in Lisbon
organised by the European Educational Research Association (EERA)
Network 17 History of education

BIRTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF A
DISCIPLINARY FIELD IN EDUCATION
(END OF 19TH – FIRST HALF OF 20 TH CENTURY)
THE ROLE OF INSTITUTES AND CONGRESSES


Coordinators: Rita Hofstetter and Bernard Schneuwly, University of Geneva
Section des sciences de l'éducation – FPSE – Université de Genève
Uni Mail – CH-1211 Genève 4.
e-mail: Rita.Hofstetter@pse.unige.ch ; Bernard.Schneuwly@pse.unige.ch



Symposium 1 : The history of institutes specialised in educational research and teaching

Gerhard Benetka (Vienna) ; Martin Lawn (Birmingham) ; Valérie Lussi, Rita Hofstetter & Bernard Schneuwly (Geneva)

Symposia 2a and b: Congresses dedicated to the analysis of education:
a historical approach

Kevin J. Brehony (Reading) ; Luís Miguel Carvalho, Jorge Ramos do Ó & Ana Lúcia Fernandes (Lisbon) ; Marco Cicchini (Geneva) ; Marc Depaepe, Frank Simon & Angelo Van Gorp (Leuven and Gent) ; Eckehardt Fuchs (Mannheim) ; Philipp Gonon (Trier) ; Charles Magnin & Astrid Thomann (Geneva)



Concept for three articulated symposia at the ECER congress 2002 in Lisbon organised by the European Educational Research Association (EERA)

In most occidental States, two strongly interwoven phenomena appear at the end of the 19th century that transform fundamentally the thinking on education.

- Generalisation of schooling, development of systems of education, institutionalisation of teacher education, all this guaranteed by public instruction that is organically and by law related to the State. As a consequence, these transformations reinforce pedagogical theorising.

- The birth of new scientific disciplines that are concerned with the human being and with society and that postulate the necessity and the possibility of empirical approaches to understand social phenomena. Universities undergo at this very moment a thorough transformation (professionalisation of scientific research, growing delimitation of disciplines, unity of research and higher education, growing importance of professional education at university) that models also the development of social sciences. Several new social sciences take as their objet the analysis of educational questions.

These two major phenomena develop the pedagogical reflection and lead to a progressive professionalisation and specialisation of educational research. This process continues during the first half of the 20th century, inside and outside university: academic chairs are created; courses and diploma in pedagogy are proposed; institutions specialised in educational research are founded; journals, series, textbooks are edited; scientific associations are created; congresses are organised; researchers and professionals coming from different disciplinary backgrounds specialise in the study of educational problems. In other words, a new disciplinary field is emerging, linked to educational domains; this field takes more and more social form of academic disciplines. Their main characteristics are: institutions specialised simultaneously in research and education; clearly defined objects/contents of research that are commonly accepted; organised networks of communication; careers and practices guaranteeing the socialisation of new researchers; rules and social conventions. All these are instruments of production and transmission of knowledge that guarantee the unfolding of a scientific discipline.

The process of institutionalisation – one could also call it process of disciplinarisation – is characterised, for the disciplinary field linked to education, by a strong relationship with socio-professionnal and political and administrative demands that educational research has to take into account. The process is also in relation with the scientific/academic world whose criteria of legitimacy are partly integrated; at the same time the process is specified by the fact that it concerns a pluridisciplinary field. The French name of the field – educational scienceS – proposed by Claparède, shows this fact in a particularly clear manner.

The planned symposium are aimed at contributing to a better understanding of the process of institutionalisation in focussing particularly on the study of institutes specialised in educational research and teaching on one hand (symposium 1), on congresses dedicated to educational matters on the other hand (symposium 2 and 3). The analysis of institutes and congresses are, in our view, a promising way to study the evolution of the links between disciplinary field and professional fields of reference and to observe the disciplinary boarders that ceaseless move, inside the field itself and concerning the relationships with other disciplines.

Symposium 1: The history of institutes specialised in educational research and teaching

The ones who know the history of the primitive institutional forms of “educational sciences” are aware of the crucial role that institutes of research and teaching play in the promoting of a scientific approach of educational phenomena, These institutes are mostly private or situated at the margin of the university, due to the fact that they are no officially recognised; but this very fact offers them a certain freedom of action and research. The foundation of institutes is the result of many factors whose exact analysis will be one of the objects of the symposium. The following general question will guide the different papers:
- What is an institute oriented towards the study of educational phenomena? Is there a model in that matter?
- For which reason are institutes created and who are their promoters?
- How do these institutes interact with the educational professions and with the practices of reference?
- What disciplines are integrated, be it in the teaching or in the educational research? How do the boarders and synergies evolve?

Through the monographic description of several important institutes acting in the domain of education, the symposium will contribute to a better understanding of their role in the emergence and development of educational sciences as a disciplinary field. The symposium could also contribute to a comparative approach of the history of these institutes and to an analysis of the tensions between local characteristics and international trends in the domain of educational sciences.


Symposia 2a and b: Congresses dedicated to the analysis of education: a historical approach

Congresses – but also symposia, seminars, workshops, etc. – are central places for exchange of information, meetings and networking. Despite their mostly quite informal nature, these meetings are often at the origin of new synergies and creation of networks, institutions, and associations and contribute in this way to the institutional foundation of educational research and to the renewing of its domains of investigation and of disciplinary reference. These meetings are still poorly known, perhaps because their study is particularly difficult from the point of view of the sources at disposal. The second symposium aims at promoting such studies, and more particularly at asking the question of the influence of congresses on the construction of the field of educational sciences. The following questions could be treated:
- Which congresses have as their objet educational phenomena? What are their objectives? Who organises them? Where do they take place? Are they continuous? What is the relationship between international and national events?
- Who are the participants at these congresses and what are their roles and functions? What are their disciplinary, institutional and geographic origins? Can one distinguish synergies or separations between professional and scientific milieus, between the representatives of educational sciences and of other disciplines? How do the journals report on these events?
- How are the congresses structured from the point of view of contents? What is the relationship between disciplinary field and professional field?

The analyses of congresses and their longitudinal observation would allow to understand the history of an essential instrument of disciplinarisation of educational sciences and to see in detail, through the institution called “congress”, the moving relationship between disciplines. The comparison of approaches of several national and/or international congresses could also be useful to analyse the effects of local and international constraints.

These two symposia will bring together specialists in the analysis of the evolution of educational sciences coming from different geographical, disciplinary, cultural and linguistic contexts. The communications will present historical investigations, discuss methodological problems and sketch comparative issues. In this doing, the two symposia continue the discussion that began at the last congress of EERA in Lille and that brought together other researchers that looked through other objects – mainly teacher education – the history of educational sciences.

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Abstracts Symposium 1
The history of institutes specialised in educational research and teaching

1. Institutes of Research in the 1920s and 1930s: a 'modernizing' US strategy
in educational research?
Martin Lawn, University of Birmingham

This paper will describe the role played by the International Institute at Columbia University, NY and private foundations in setting up and funding research institutes in the British colonies and dominions.
The paper will describe the early years of the Scottish Council for Research in Education in Edinburgh, established in the 1920s. The history of SCRE has been viewed against the development of a Scottish educational research tradition but in this paper, SCRE will be viewed within the context of the establishment of research councils in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, set up in the following decade, through the influence of Carnegie and Columbia.
Research Institutes are a flexible way of managing tasks and influencing policy, while appearing to conform to disciplinary procedures. Locating Institutes within their intellectual and financial contexts, particularly the production and consumption of practices of research and policy is important.
This paper inquires into the relations between private funding bodies and educational research institutes, the purposes of funding and the influences of funding on research traditions and outlooks. It will explore these issues through a study of SCRE in the 1920s and 1930s, within the wider context of the influence of private foundations [particularly the Carnegie Foundation] and Columbia University.


2. The Institut des sciences de l’éducation in Geneva (1912-1950)
Valérie Lussi, Rita Hofstetter & Bernard Schneuwly, University of Geneva

This paper presents some results of a collective research on the history of the Institut des sciences de l’éducation – also called Institut Jean-Jacques Rousseau - created in Geneva by Claparède in 1912. In a first step, we analyse the foundation conditions of this institute, its first program, and the reasons why the founder had to create a private institution outside the university. In a second step, we describe the main phases of its development during the first half of the 20th century until the Institute became “ Institut inter-Facultés ”, i.e. a really academic institute that delivered its own diploma. Two main phases can been distinguished: the first one (1912-1929) is characterised by the fact that the different functions of the institute (intervention, teaching, propaganda, research) and the different disciplinary contributions are not clearly differentiated. The second phase (1929-1948), that begins when the institute is linked to the Faculty of Arts, can be described as an ongoing differentiation of the many functions and disciplines; the emergence of psychology as an autonomous discipline is particularly significant in this respect.
Our research, that relies on the work of other historians and sociologists analysing the “ process of disciplinarisation ” through the effective scientific practices, aims at understanding the contribution of the Institute to the emergence of educational sciences as a new disciplinary field.

 

3. The Institute of Psychology in Vienna and its role in educational science
Gerhard Benetka, University of Vienna

The Institute of Psychology in Vienna is created in the context of an important school reform and of changes in teacher education in the red Vienna of the twenties. In a very complex institutional structure which belongs to university and to the town of Vienna, most important research activities have been developing with on one hand the elaboration of a most important theoretical background for psychology by Karl Bühler and on the other hand many studies on child development. With the exception of research on nursery schools, the studies do generally not include the educational background; this worries the teachers as much as the administration, as shown by many sources, but both are at the same time most interested by the impressive results of psychology to child development and general psychology. Thousands of teachers attend the courses given by Karl Bühler and Charlotte Bühlers studies and research influence the discussions about school reform. Psychology develops thus with the help of and as a contribution to education, without really theorizing education. Political changes, the end of the school reform, the drop of the level of teacher qualification has important consequences for the institute, and under the Nazi regime, the Bühlers are force to leave Vienna and the instate in 1938.

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Abstracts Symposium 2a and b
Congresses dedicated to the analysis of education: a historical approach

Symposium 2a

4. Scientific Knowledge, the Solving of National Problems and the Struggle for Status
Luís Miguel Carvalho, Jorge Ramos do Ó & Ana Lúcia Fernandes, University of Lisbon

We intend to identify and to give a summary of the main pedagogical congresses that took place in Portugal between 1900 and 1933. Within this extended picture, we will analyse, in depth, two independent series of congresses: the Pedagogical Congress of Primary Education (four editions between 1908 and 1914); and the Pedagogical Congress of Secondary Education (four editions between 1927 and 1931). Each had their own apparently contrasting agendas: the first, illiteracy and the generalisation of primary schooling; the second, students’ learning, evaluation and selection. However, both included as central issues the solution of national problems through education, and the concern with teachers’ status, with both congresses mobilising scientific discourses, usually drawn from psychology. We intend to adopt an analytical framework derived from socio-historical approaches to science formation and science development (e.g., Wittrock and Wagner on discourse structuration, Latour and others on translation).

 

5. International Moral Education Congresses (1908-1934)
Marco Cicchini, University of Geneva

This paper deals with the six international moral education congresses that were held during the 1908-1934 period. We will first question the aims and ideals of the instigators of these congresses. We will then define the theoretical and institutional outlines of the congresses, the socio-professional profiles of the congress participants, the status of their contribution (scientific or not) and the disciplines invited to discuss the congress problems.
A preliminary investigation has highlighted a number of questions. In which way the contiguity of persons, disciplines, or approaches, very contrasted during these congresses, contribute to identify a disciplinary field of sciences of education? Which roles may we assign to outstanding personalities like F.W. Foerster, F.J. Gould, or J. Piaget? How can we understand the progressive diminution of moral education congress participants (until the disappearance of the whole congress) and in parallel the growth of the participation of New Education fellowship personalities? Finally does the analysis of moral education congresses explain the non-existence, during the first decades of the 20th century, of an international and lasting congress explicitly concerned with the sciences of education?
This study is mostly based on the proceedings and publications of the moral education congresses. Inspired by historians/sociologists of sciences stressing the importance of international dimension of scientific recognition (for programs as well as disciplines), our analysis attempts to understand the emergence of the sciences of education as a disciplinary field in the context of international moral education congresses.

 

6. A New Education for a New Era: Creating International Fellowship Through Conferences 1921-1938
Kevin J. Brehony, University of Reading

The founding conference of the New Education Fellowship (NEF) was held at Calais in 1921. This organisation was an initiative of the Theosophical Fraternity in Education, which was connected, to the Theosophical Society. Its leader foe most of the inter war period was Beatrice Ensor, an active member of the Theosophical Society. Between the great world wars of the Twentieth Century, the NEF became an important international vector of the educational ideas and practices known variously as the New Education, Progressive Education and Reform Pedagogy. Dissemination took place through the journals of the NEF sections such as the The New Era, the journal of the English Section and through the conferences held regularly during the 1920s and 1930s.
This paper draws upon data derived from the archives of the World Education Fellowship held at the Institute of Education in London, the journals of the NEF and the conference volumes to analyse the role and significance of its conferences. Firstly, an immanent critique of a Weberian nature will trace the movement from a concern with individuality and freedom to citizenship as the rise of Fascism and Stalinism made the former position untenable. Next, an examination of the meaning of international for the NEF will be conducted as most of the conferences were held in Europe or countries within the British sphere of influence like South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. International organisation required significant resources and the constant struggle to raise funds will be outlined.
The NEF has been described as, ‘a connecting link between educational practical workers and researchers’ or a movement connecting enthusiasts with major figures in the emergent disciplines like Jung, Piaget, and Dewey. The relation between these constituencies is examined and conclusions drawn regarding the professionalising process. Finally, the data will be treated to a network analysis in order to establish the international flows of the New Education, their direction and centres of diffusion and the effects they had on educational research and policy.

 

7. The congressionist Ovide Decroly
Marc Depaepe, Frank Simon & Angelo Van Gorp, Universities of Leuven and Gent

An element that contributed to the worldwide reputation of the Belgian physician, psychologist and educationalist Ovide Decroly (1871-1932) was his exceptional congress activity. He attended at almost fifty congresses in thirty years. It reflected the diversity in his scientific activities, referring to neurology and psychiatry, social and familial hygiene, children with special needs and youth delinquency, paedology, professional orientation and New Education. Therefore, Decroly seems to be an extraordinary case to explore the national (Belgian) and international ‘educational’ congresses in the first three decades of the 20th century. In order to do that, we want to draw the lines of his congress route. What was his function? What were his contributions and interventions? What was his influence? Etc. This biographical sketch will perhaps stress two major points: (1) the paedological view of Decroly, going together with the rise and fall of the paedology (illustrative for the ongoing process of differentiation); (2) his close connection with the professional field, what was an important explanation for his success.

Symposium 2b

8. World exhibition participation and country reports as an element of developing international educational perspectives
Philipp Gonon, University of Trier

In 19th Century the importance of world exhibitions was exorbitant. New technologies and products were introduced. By the way the cultural and economical power of a nation was demonstrated for the public at home and for other nations. As central places for exchange such exhibitions were always occasions for learning about others and for legitimizing reform options at home.
Also the building of modern educational systems and the renewal of vocational education was affected by the “international argument”. It was effective because of the presence of educational representatives on world exhibitions. They reported about innovations and made propositions for educational reforms at home. In this contribution, based on historical research and hermeneutic analysis of texts, I reconstruct the debate of introducing “work” in school in a German and Swiss context, beginning from the Vienna Exhibition of 1873 and ending in the first decade of the 20th Century.
Due to this perspective I am arguing that the pedagogical discourse in the public and (scientific) research got itself more and more internationalized. The education for the world of work and education through work advanced to an important issue for developing the educational sciences itself.

 

9. Educational Science, Morality,and Politics: International Educational Congresses as Mode of Institutionalization and Politicization of Education in the Early Twentieth Century
Eckehardt Fuchs, University of Mannheim

The paper investigates the complex phenomenon of internationalism and cultural transfer in education spanning the period from the last quarter of the nineteenth century to the late 1920s. While introducing the most important modes of international collaboration in this early stage of internationalism, the presentation will mainly focus on international educational congresses. I will not only show how these meetings contributed to the transfer of ideas and theories across nations but also discuss how specific academic, political, and moral interests defined them. I will try to reveal how the founding, organization, and aims of these congresses were influenced and shaped by different national disciplinary fields and how international education and national politics were linked.

 

10. The Development and Use of Scientific Knowledge on Education within the International Bureau of Education from 1927 to 2001
Charles Magnin & Astrid Thomann, University of Geneva

The International Bureau of Education (IBE) was established in Geneva in 1925 as a private organization linked to the Institute of Educational Sciences founded in 1912 by Edouard Claparède. It became an intergovernmental organization in 1929 and evolved under the leadership of Jean Piaget for almost forty years. Between 1934 and 2001, the IBE initiated and organised 46 sessions of the International Conference on Education (ICE). In 1968, it was absorbed into UNESCO with which it had collaborated since 1952. The IBE is a place where knowledge on education is produced by scientific researchers and put to use by government representatives. The present communication traces the evolution of this interaction. The paper examines key changes in this corpus of scientific knowledge, in the methods by which it was produced and in the ways in which it was used by different actors, in different political contexts, all of which varied considerably over 75 years. The study focuses in particular on the sessions of the Conference devoted to “peace education” and “access to secondary education”.

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Addresses of contributors

Gerhard Benetka
Psychologisches Institut
Universität Wien
Private Address: Sechsschimmelgasse 24/17
A-1090 Wien
E-mail: gerhard.benetka@univie.ac


Kevin J.Brehony
School of Education
University of Reading, UK
•••
E-mail: k.j.brehony@rdg.ac.uk


Luís Miguel Carvalho
Institution: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa
Faculdade de Motricidade Humana Estrada da Costa.
1495-688 Cruz Quebrada. Portugal
E-mail: lcarvalho@fmh.utl.pt


Marco Cicchini
Université de Genève
Section des sciences de l'éducation
FPSE Uni Mail
CH-1211 Genève 4
E-mail : Marco.Cicchini@pse.unige.ch


Marc Depaepe
Afd. Historische pedagogiek
Vesaliusstraat 2
B 3000 Leuven
E-mail: Marc.Depaepe@ped.kuleuven.ac.be


Jorge Ramos do Ó
Universidade de Lisboa
Faculdade de Psicologia e de Ciências da Educação
Private Address: Rua D. Estefânia 15 - 7 Dto. 1150-129 Lisboa
E-mail: jorge.o@netcabo.pt


Ana Lúcia Fernandes
Universidade de Lisboa
Faculdade de Psicologia e de Ciências da Educação
Private Address: Rua de São Paulo, 7 - 6 Dto. 2780-038 Oeiras
E-mail: analucia_fr@yahoo.fr


Eckhardt Fuchs
Universität Mannheim
Lehrstuhl Erziehungswissenschaft III
Schloß, EO 217, Postfach 10 34 62
D-68131 Mannheim
E-Mail: efuchs@rumms.uni-mannheim.de


Philipp Gonon
Lehrstuhl berufliche, betriebliche Weiterbildung
Fachbereich I
Universität Trier
54296 Trier
E-mail: gonon@uni-trier.de


Rita Hofstetter
Université de Genève
Section des sciences de l'éducation
FPSE Uni Mail
CH-1211 Genève 4
E-mail: Rita.Hofstetter@pse.unige.ch


Martin Lawn
Department of Educaion
Westhill College
Weoley Park Road
Birmingham B29 6LL
E-mail: martin@greenhill.wyenet.co.uk


Valérie Lussi
Université de Genève
Section des sciences de l'éducation
FPSE Uni Mail
CH-1211 Genève 4
E-mail: Valerie.Lussi@pse.unige.ch


Charles Magnin
Université de Genève
Section des sciences de l'éducation
FPSE Uni Mail
CH-1211 Genève 4
E-mail: Charles.Magnin@pse.unige.ch


Bernard Schneuwly
Université de Genève
Section des sciences de l'éducation
FPSE Uni Rondeau
CH-1211 Genève 4
E-mail: Bernard.Schneuwly@pse.unige.ch


Frank Simon
Vakgroep Pedagogiek
Universiteit Gent
Henri Dunantlaan 1
B-9000 Gent
E-mail: frank.simon@rug.ac.be


Astrid Thomann
Université de Genève
Section des sciences de l'éducation
FPSE Uni Mail
CH-1211 Genève 4
E-mail: Astrid.Thomann@pse.unige.ch


Angelo Van Gorp
Afd. Historische pedagogiek
Vesaliusstraat 2
B 3000 Leuven
E-mail: angelo.vangorp@ped.kuleuven.ac.be

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