Volume 10

ISSN 2504-4435

The editors of the tenth volume are Caterina BONAN, Hasmik JIVANYAN and Margherita PALLOTTINO.



Functional Answers and Structural Asymmetry in Finnish Ditransitives

Karoliina Lohiniva

This paper provides supporting evidence for the claim that direct objects c-command indirect objects in ditransitive structures in Finnish. The data come from functional fragment answers, whose availability is shown to depend not only on the underlying structural relationship between the two objects, but also on the type of variable involved.


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Speaking through Someone Else's Mouth. Free Indirect Discourse, Contexts and Narratives

David Blunier

This paper develops and defends the view according to which free indirect discourse (FID) involves a form of context shift. This approach allows us to account elegantly for two puzzles in the study of FID that are i) their shifting properties and ii) the de se interpretation they trigger.


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L'ambiguïté de la négation et la marque de la négation métalinguistique

Baiyao Zuo

La marque morphosyntaxique de la négation métalinguistique n’existe pas, mais la non-existence de cette marque ne peut pas réfuter l'ambiguïté pragmatique de la négation, car cette dernière ne réside pas entre les usages métalinguistiques/descriptifs, mais entre divers usages dans les trois domaines cognitifs.


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Variation du degré de subjectivité en arménien et en français : exemple des verbes juxtaposés

Marina Petrosyan

Cet article a pour objet de montrer la variation du degré de subjectivité en arménien et en français par le biais de l’analyse des expressions de déplacement basique, à savoir les verbes aller et venir, en tant que premiers constituants des verbes juxtaposés de l’arménien, discutés dans une perspective sémantique-pragmatique.


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Parce que in the Syntax-Semantics-Pragmatics Interface

Hasmik Jivanyan & Giuseppe Samo

After re-analysing the subordinating vs. paratactic distinction for the connective parce que (because) in terms of meaning, we show the limits of its syntactic manipulations (clefting, initial position) and their impact on the interpretation of the relation. We explain the syntactic constraints of each type of relation in the framework of generative syntax.


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On the Distribution of Wh-Relatives in Romance and in English

Frédérique Berthelot

Romance wh pronouns, lequel and cognates, cannot introduce a restrictive relative unless they pied-pipe a preposition. English wh pronouns are not similarly constrained. I suggest that this contrast can be captured if one considers that wh pronouns are structurally deficient in Romance but not in English. The complex morphology of lequel does not contradict this claim, since the first morpheme is shown to be different from the homophonous definite article.


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Balkan Subjunctive Distribution: World Semantics and Default Selection

Tomislav Socanac

Subjunctive complements in Balkan languages (e.g. Greek, Romanian, Bulgarian) distribute along a very wide range of embedded syntactic environments, because they are selected both by control and by non-control predicates. Such a wide distribution results in a great degree of semantic diversity associated with Balkan subjunctive (BlkS) in general, which makes it difficult to provide a coherent and unified theoretical account of this mood category. The analysis of BlkS I proposed in the paper focused on the selection mechanism whereby subjunctive complements are introduced into the structure, and the way in which the latter differs from indicative selection. I argued, based on Farkas (1992), that indicatives are selected by predicates which contain a specific mood feature, defined as the World feature, whereas subjunctives are selected in the absence of this feature, i.e. by default. This analysis eventually allowed me to account for the lexical diversity of subjunctive-selecting predicates in Balkan languages, as well as for the formal and semantic contrasts that can be noted between various types of BlkS complements.


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C'est or ? On the Cartography of Clefts

Caterina Bonan

This paper presents novel data on the morphosyntax of declarative and interrogative clefts in contemporary oral French and Trevigiano, a Venetan dialect. On the basis of systematic comparisons between the two languages, I claim that in the variety of French under consideration c’est (‘it is’) is actually a crystallized copula, / se /, construed with a null expletive. I then argue that Belletti’s (2015) cartographic analysis of clefts can be greatly simplified for the two oral varieties studied here.


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Korean-English Codeswitching Explained by the Double Switch Constraint Explains Wh in-Situ

Bahareh Samimi

In this paper, I show that the word order of Korean-English codeswitching interrogatives deviates from word order rules of the participating languages to comply with the Double-Switch Constraint, forming in this sense one new language. Accordingly, I select the most compatible analysis of wh in situ.


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On the Category of Tunisian Object Marking FI

Margherita Pallottino

This paper discusses the categorial status and the syntax of the object marker fi in Tunisian Arabic. It shows that this particle, whose presence is mandatory in certain aspectually marked transitive sentences, e.g. progressive contexts, is best analysed as a grammaticalized preposition. The marker is shown to be semantically vacuous but syntactically functional since it retains the Case-licensing function proper of all members of the propositional class.


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The Effect of -RA in Persian on Licensing Superiority Violations in Multiple Wh-Questions

Farhad Mirdamadi

In this paper, I discuss how the differential object marker in Persian (i.e., the suffix -RA) eliminates superiority violation in multiple wh-questions. Based on f(eatural) Relativized Minimality (Starke 2001, Rizzi 2004), I argue that the suffix -RA enriches the extracted wh object with [+Top(ic)], circumventing the intervention effect created by the configuration of feature Identity.


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The Role of Working Memory in the Comprehension of Phrasal Movement in Children with Learning Difficulties

Emily Stanford & Hélène Delage

Working memory (WM) limitations are frequently reported for children with specific learning disorder (SLD), which may influence the development of syntax. In this study, we assess how children with SLD comprehend structures with and without syntactic intervention and examine how comprehension relates to WM capacity. Our main finding is that a subgroup of SLD children struggle significantly to comprehend structures containing intervention, and that lower WM capacity is associated with less accurate performance.


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On Subjects and By-Phrases in Italian-Speaking Children: Evidence from an Elicited Production Study of Object Relatives

Karen Martini

This paper presents some data from a recent study on the elicited production of relative clauses in 3 to 9 year-old Italian-speaking children. It is shown that children properly master the syntax and the discourse related properties of Italian pre/post-verbal subjects and short/long passives from very early on.


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