Research of the Bakker Group

1) Developing calibration-free sensors

Coulometry
Thin layer coulometry for absolute measurements

Low-Cost Thin Layer Coulometric Microfluidic Device Based on Ion-Selective Membrane for Calcium Determination
Dorokhin, D.; Crespo, G.A.; Ghahraman Afshar, M.; Bakker, E. Analyst, 2014, 139, 48 - 51.

Detection Limits of Thin Layer Coulometry with Ionophore-Based Ion-Selective Membranes
Shvarev, A.; Néel, B.; Bakker, E. Anal. Chem., 2012, 84, 8038–8044.

Thin Layer Potentiometric and Coulometric Determination of Nitrate in Fresh Waters
Sohail, M.; De Marco, R.; Lamb, K.; Bakker, E. Anal. Chim. Acta, 2012, 744, 39-44. PDF

Interference Compensation for Thin Layer Coulometric Ion-Selective Membrane Electrodes by the Double Pulse Technique
Grygolowicz-Pawlak, E.; Numnuam, A.; Thavarungkul, P.; Kanatharana, P.; Bakker, E. Anal. Chem., 2012, 84, 1327-1335.

Membrane Response Model for Ion-Selective Electrodes Operated by Controlled Potential Thin-Layer Coulometry
Bakker, E. Anal. Chem., 2011, 83, 486-493.

2) Ion-selective membranes for speciation analysis

Alkalinity
Total acidity, alkalinity and pH measurements at a single interface

All Solid State Chronopotentiometric Ion-Selective Electrodes Based on Ferrocene Functionalized PVC
Jarolimova, Z.; Crespo, G. A.; Gharaman Afshar, M.; Pawlak, M.; Bakker, E. J. Electroanal. Chem., 2013, 709, 118-125.

Direct Detection of Acidity, Alkalinity and pH with Membrane Electrodes
Crespo, G.; Afshar, M.G.; Bakker, E. Anal. Chem., 2012, 84, 10165-10169. 

Direct Ion Speciation Analysis with Ion-Selective Membranes Operated in a Sequential Potentiometric/Time Resolved Chronopotentiometric Sensing Mode
Afshar, M.G.; Crespo, G.A.; Bakker, E. Anal. Chem., 2012, 84, 8813-8821. 

A Non-Severinghaus Potentiometric CO2 Sensor with Improved Characteristics
Xie, X.; Bakker, E. Anal. Chem., 2013, 85, 1332-1336.

3)  Sensors for the point of care analysis of the anticoagulant heparin

Heparin detection
Detecting heparin in whole blood
Reversible Detection of the Anticoagulant Heparin with Permselective Membrane Electrodes
Crespo, G.A.; Afshar, M.G.; Bakker, E. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2012, 51, 12575-12578.

Detecting of Heparin in Whole Blood for Point of Care Anticoagulation Control During Surgery
Bakker, E.; Crespo, G. A.; Afshar, M. G.; Saxer, T.; Bendjelid, K. Chimia, 2013, 67, 350.

Flash Chronopotentiometric Sensing of the Polyions Protamine and Heparin at Ion-Selective Membranes
Gemene, K.L.; Bakker, E. Anal. Biochem., 2009, 386, 276-281.

4)  Functionalization of membrane materials by click chemistry

SurfaceClick
Surface functionalization of PVC membranes with click chemistry

All Solid State Chronopotentiometric Ion-Selective Electrodes Based on Ferrocene Functionalized PVC
Jarolimova, Z.; Crespo, G. A.; Gharaman Afshar, M.; Pawlak, M.; Bakker, E. J. Electroanal. Chem., 2013, 709, 118-125.

A Label-Free Potentiometric Sensor Principle for the Detection of Antibody-Antigen Interactions
Ozdemir, M. S.; Marczak, M.; Bohets, H.; Bonroy, K.; Rohmans, D.; Stuyver, L.; Vanhoutte, K.; Pawlak, M.; Bakker, E. Anal. Chem., 2013, 85, 4770–4776.

Transport and accumulation of ferrocene tagged poly(vinyl chloride) at the buried interfaces of solid-contact plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) based ion-selective membrane electrodes
Sohail, M.; De Marco, R.; Alam, M. T.; Pawlak, M.; Bakker, E. Analyst, 2013, 138, 4266-4269.

PVC-based Ion-Selective Electrodes with Enhanced Biocompatibility by Surface Modification with "Click" Chemistry
Pawlak, M.; Grygolowicz-Pawlak, E.; Crespo, G. A.; Mistlberger, G.; Bakker, E. Electroanalysis, 2013, 25, 1840–1846.

In Situ Surface Functionalization of Plasticized Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Membranes by ‘Click Chemistry’
Pawlak, M.; Mistlberger, G.; Bakker, E. J. Mater. Chem., 2012, 22, 12796-2801.

5) Optical sensors based on selective extraction principles

Nanospheres
Ion-selective nanospheres for suspension based chemical sensing
Ultrasmall Fluorescent Ion-Exchanging Nanospheres Containing Selective Ionophores
Xie, X.; Mistlberger, G.; Bakker, E. Anal. Chem., 2013, 85, 9932–9938.

Oxazinoindolines as Fluorescent H+ Turn-On Chromoionophores For Optical and Electrochemical Ion Sensors
Xie, X.; Crespo, G. A.; Bakker, E. Anal. Chem., 2013, 85, 7434–7440.

Direct Optical Carbon Dioxide Sensing Based on a Polymeric Sensing Film Doped with a Selective Molecular Tweezer Type Ionophore
Xie, X.; Tercier-Waeber, M.; Pawlak, M.; Bakker, E. Anal. Chem., 2012, 84, 3163-3169.

6) Photoswitchable and phototriggered extractions, sensors, and proton pumps

PhotoswitchableSensors
Photoswitchable calcium-selective optochemical senso
Photocurrent Generation Based on Light-Driven Proton Pump in Supported Liquid Membranes Doped with Photoswitchable Spiropyran
Xie, X.; Crespo, G. A.; Mistlberger, G.; Bakker, E. Nature Chem., in press

Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Microspheres Containing Photoswitchable Spiropyran-Based Binding Sites
Renkecz, T.; Mistlberger, G.; Pawlak, M.; Horvath, V.; Bakker, E. ACS App. Mater. Inter., 2013, 5, 8537–8545.

Photoresponsive Ion Extraction/Release Systems: Dynamic Ion Optodes for Calcium and Sodium Based on Photochromic Spiropyran
Mistlberger, G.; Xie, X.; Pawlak, M.; Crespo, G.; Bakker, E. Anal. Chem., 2013, 85, 2983-2990.

Reversible Photodynamic Chloride-Selective Sensor Based on Photochromic Spiropyran
Xie, X.; Mistlberger, G.; Bakker, E. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2012, 134, 16929–16932.

Photodynamic ion sensor systems with spiropyran: photoactivated acidity changes in plasticized poly(vinyl chloride)
Mistlberger, G.; Crespo, G.A.; Xie, X.; Bakker, E. Chem. Commun., 2012, 48, 5662-5664.

7)  Permselective ion-exchange membranes for sensing and desalination

Desalination
Online desalination based on a thin layer eletrochemical cell
Potentiometric Sensors with Ion-Exchange Donnan Exclusion Membranes
Grygolowicz-Pawlak, E.; Crespo, G.; Mistlberger, G.; Ghahraman Afshar, M.; Bakker, E. Anal. Chem., 2013, 85, 6208-6212.

Rapid Coulometric Sodium Chloride Removal System with Nafion Membrane for Seawater Sample Treatment
Grygolowicz-Pawlak, E.; Sohail, M.; Pawlak, M.; Néel, B.; Shvarev, A.; De Marco, R.; Bakker, E. Anal. Chem., 2012, 84, 6158-6165.

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