This contribution investigates LnIII complexes formed with a small ditopic ligand, L1, and their structural, thermodynamic and photophysical properties. The spectrophotometric and NMR titrations evidence the triangular assemblies [Ln3(L1-H)3]6+ at stoichiometric conditions and their properties are discussed in relation to L2-containing analogues. In addition, the dinuclear species, [Ln2(L1-H)]5+, is observed with an excess of metal.
Self-assembly processes between a tripodal ligand and LnIII cations have been investigated by means of supramolecular analytical methods. At an equimolar ratio of components, tetranuclear tetrahedral complexes are readily formed in acetonitrile. The structural analysis of the crystallographic data shows a helical wrapping of binding strands around metallic cations. The properties of this series of highly charged 3D compounds were examined by using NMR spectroscopy and optical methods in solution and in the solid state. In the presence of excess metal, a new trinuclear complex was identified. The X-ray crystal structure elucidated the coordination of metallic cations with two ligands of different conformations. By varying the metal/ligand ratio, a global speciation of this supramolecular system has been evidenced with different spectroscopic methods. In addition, these rather complicated equilibria were successfully characterised with the thermodynamic stability constants. A rational analysis of the self-assembly processes was attempted by using the thermodynamic free energy model and the impact of the ligand structure on the effective concentration is discussed.
The structure and thermodynamic properties of lanthanide complexes with a new tripodal ligand L2 have been elucidated using different physicochemical methods. At stoichiometric ratios, the tetrahedral three-dimensional complexes with lanthanide cations are formed in acetonitrile with good stabilities. Despite minor structural changes comparing to previously investigated tripodal ligands, the resulting assembly exhibits different features revealed with the crystal structure of [Eu4L24](OH)(ClO4)11 (orthorhombic, Pbcn). Interestingly, the highly charged edifice contains an inner cage encapsulating a perchlorate anion. Such lanthanide mediated cage-like assemblies are rare, and may be of interest for different sensing applications. Indeed, the anionic guest can be exchanged with different anions. The related host–guest equilibria were investigated with NMR techniques. Various aspects of these reactions are qualitatively discussed.
Two tridentate and one bidentate binding strands have been anchored on a carbon atom to provide a new unsymmetrical tripodal ligand L for Ln(III) coordination. The ligand itself adopts a single conformation in solution stabilized by intramolecular hydrogen bonds evidenced in the solid state. The reaction of L with trivalent lanthanides provides different coordination complexes depending on the metal/ligand ratio. The speciation studies with selected lanthanides were performed in solution by means of NMR, ESMS, and spectrophotometric titrations. Differences in coordination properties along the lanthanide series were evidenced and may be associated with the changes in the ionic size. However, thermodynamic stability constants for the species of the same stoichiometry do not significantly vary. In addition, the structure of the dinuclear complex [Eu2L2]6+ has been elucidated in the solid state, where the complex crystallizes predominantly as an M-isomer. The crystal structure shows the coordination of two different ligands to each europium cation through tridentate strands, and the europium nine-coordinate sphere is completed with three solvent molecules. Finally, the results of photophysical investigations of [Eu2L2]6+ are in close agreement with the structural parameters determined by crystallography.
Triangular luminescent box: Self-assembly of a new multidentate receptor with europium cations results in the formation of trinuclear discrete complexes. X-ray crystallography shows that nine-coordinate cations are linked by ligands to provide a triangular complex in the solid state and in solution. Despite the coordinated solvent molecules, this topologically unusual complex exhibits remarkable luminescent properties.