## Structural Equation Modeling (SEM)

## Peter Schmidt

Peter Schmidt is Professor for Social Research at the University of
Giessen. Presently, Program Director at ZUMA (Centre for Survey
Research and Methodology, Mannheim, Germany), responsible for Social
Monitoring, (General Social Survey, Social indicators, and Microcensus
Data). His research interests are the foundations and applications of
structural equation models, analysis of panel data, and empirical
testing of rational choice theory. Applications include national
identity and environmental behavior, topics on which he has published
several books and papers.

The course will show how a causal theory can be represented by a path
diagram and translated into a structural equation model and how the
model can be estimated and tested with the AMOS computer program. In
the first part we will deal with measurement models relating single or
multiple indicators to latent variables. Furthermore different
specifications of measurement models are tested via confirmatory factor
analysis as a special case of a structural equation model. The second
part comprises both the structural and the measurement model. Topics
include recursive vs. non-recursive models for the structural part of
the model, treatment of panel data and multiple-group comparisons.
Special attention is given to the process of model modification.
### Objectives

The objective of this course is to show how structural equation
modeling can be used to develop and/or test both measurement models and
causal theories between latent variables. A further important aim is to
familiarize participants with the AMOS program. The program will be run
by graphical input via path diagrams (AMOS Graphics) and by command
language (AMOS Text).

A student version of AMOS is available via internet:
Smallwaters

## Bibliography

### Basic text/overview

- Schumacker, R.E. and Lomax, R.G. (1996): A Beginner's Guide to Structural
Equation Modeling. Erlbaum. Paperback.
- Arbuckle, J.L. (1996): AMOS User's Guide. Erlbaum.
[Whenever possible you should bring this book with you as it will be
intesively used during the exercices.]
- Barbara M. Byrne, 2001: Structural equation modeling with
AMOS. Basic concepts, application, and programming. London:
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ISBN/order code: 0-8058-3322-6.

### Remedial Reading

- Reinecke, J., Schmidt, P. and Ajzen, I. (1996): Application of the Theory of
Planned Behavior to Adolescents' Condom Use: A Panel Study. In: Journal of
Applied Social Psychology, 26: 749-772.
- Scherpenzeel, A.C. and Saris, W.E. (1997):
The Validity and Reliability of Survey
Questions. Social Methods and Research, 25: 347-383.
- Van den Putte, B. and Hoogstraten, J. (1997): Applying Structural Equation Modeling
in the Context of the Theory of Reasoned Action: Some Problems and Solutions.
Structural Equation Modeliung. A Multidisciplinary Journal, 4: 320-337.
*For german speaking participants: *
ZUMA:
and especially the
ZUMA InformationSystem