Swiss Summer School 2008

Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) I

**Peter Schmidt **
is Professor for Social Research at the University of Giessen.
His research interests are the foundations and applications of structural equation models, analysis of panel data, and empirical testing of rational choice theory. Applications include national identity, immigration and environmental behavior, topics on which he has published several books and papers.

**Eldad Davidov **is researcher at the Central Archive for Empirical Social Research-GESIS, in Cologne. His research interests are applications of structural equation modelling to survey data, especially in cross-country and longitudinal research. Applications include human values, rational choice and economic inequality of immigrants.

The course will show how a causal theory can be represented by a path diagram and translated into a structural equation model and how the model can be estimated and tested with the AMOS computer program. In the first part we will deal with measurement models relating single or multiple indicators to latent variables. Furthermore different specifications of measurement models are tested via confirmatory factor analysis as a special case of a structural equation model. The second part comprises both the structural and the measurement model. Topics include recursive vs. non-recursive models for the structural part of the model, treatment of panel data and multiple-group comparisons. Special attention is given to the process of model modification.

The objective of this course is to show how structural equation modeling can be used to develop and/or test both measurement models and causal theories between latent variables. A further important aim is to familiarize participants with the AMOS program. The program will be run by graphical input via path diagrams (AMOS Graphics).

- Arbuckle, J.L. (2005): AMOS 6.0 User's Guide. Chicago: SPSS/Erlbaum. [Available online on the SPSS web-site]
- Barbara M. Byrne, 2001: Structural equation modeling with AMOS. Basic concepts, application, and programming. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ISBN/order code: 0-8058-3322-6.

- Heyder, A. and P. Schmidt (2002). Authoritarianism and Ethnocentrism in East and West Germany - Does the system matter? In: R. Alba, P. Schmidt & M. Wasmer (eds.). New York: Palgrave, St. Martins Press.
- Scherpenzeel, A.C. and Saris, W.E. (1997): The Validity and Reliability of Survey Questions. Social Methods and Research, 25: 347-383.
- Hoogland, J. H. and A. Boomsma (1998). Robustness studies in covariance structural modelling. An overview and a meta-analysis. Sociological methods and research, 26(3), 329-367.
- Van den Putte, B. and Hoogstraten, J. (1997): Applying Structural Equation Modeling in the Context of the Theory of Reasoned Action: Some Problems and Solutions. Structural Equation Modeliung. A Multidisciplinary Journal, 4: 320-337.
- Boomsma, A. (2000). Reporting analyses of covariance structures. Structural Equation Modeling, 7(3): 461-483. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.
- Davidov, Eldad, Peter Schmidt, and Sebastian Bamberg (2004). Modelling Longitudinal Data of an Intervention Study on Travel Model Choice: Combining Latent Growth Curves and Autoregressive Models. Pp. 263-293 in van Montfort, K., H. Oud, and A. Satorra (Eds), Recent Developments in Structural Equation Modeling: Theory and Application. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.