My PhD resarch deals with critical thinking. Many researchers believe that critical thinking training is an indispensable element in the fight against fake news, conspiracy theories or irrational beliefs. However, this notion presents serious conceptual problems. For example, there is a plethora of definitions of critical thinking and none of them has a consensus. This vagueness generates the circulation of certain misunderstandings that can induce undesirable effects - such as a certain distrust of scientific authorities, due to excessive skepticism. The challenge of this project is to undertake a critical analysis of critical thinking in order to determine what exactly should be taught under this name.