Corps enseignant





(for an almost complete and mostly up-to-date list, look on Google scholar)


  • Paola Merlo and Giuseppe Samo (in press), Exploring T3 languages with quantitative computational syntax, Theoretical Linguistics.
  • Suzanne Stevenson and Paola Merlo (in press), Beyond the Benchmarks: Toward Human-like Lexical Representations, Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence, section Language and Computation.



  • Haozhou Wang, James Henderson, and Paola Merlo. 2021. Multi-Adversarial Learning for Cross-Lingual Word Embeddings. In Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, pages 463–472, Online. Association for Computational Linguistics.



  • Kristina Gulordava and Paola Merlo (2020), ``Computational Quantitative Syntax: The Case of Universal 18'', Collection from LSRL 47, John Benjamins.





  • Paola Merlo and Sarah Ouwayda (2018), ``Movement and structure effects on Universal 20 word order frequencies: A quantitative study'', Glossa, 3(1), 84, 1-35.
  • Tanja Samardzic and Paola Merlo (2018), ``Probability of external causation: an empirical account of cross-linguistic variation in lexical causatives'', Linguistics, 56(5), 895-938.



  •  Paola Merlo (2016), ``Some Recent Results on Cross-linguistic, Corpus-based Quantitative Modelling of Word Order and Aspect'', In Joanna Blochowiak, Cristina Grisot, Eds. Formal models in the study of language: A festschrift for Jacques Moeschler, Springer.




  • Lonneke van der Plas, Paola Merlo and James Henderson (2011) "Scaling up Cross-Lingual Semantic Annotation Transfer" In Proceedings of ACL/HLT, Portland, US. [pdf]

  • van der Plas, L., T. Samardzic, and P. Merlo (2010) "Cross-lingual Validity of PropBank in the Manual Annotation of French ", In Proceedings of the 4th Linguistic Annotation Workshop (The LAW IV), Uppsala. [pdf]

  • Samardzic, T. and P. Merlo (2010) "Cross-lingual Variation of Light Verb Constructions: Using Parallel Corpora and Automatic Alignment for Linguistic Research", In Proceedings of the ACL 2010 Workshop 'NLP and Linguistics: Finding the Common Ground', Uppsala. [pdf]

  • Samardzic, T., L, van der Plas, G. Kashaeva, and P. Merlo (2010) "The Scope and the Sources of Variation in Verbal Predicates in English and French", In Proceedings of the Ninth International Workshop on Treebanks and Linguistic Theories. Tartu, 199-211. [pdf]

  • P. Merlo and L. van der Plas (2009), "Abstraction and Generalisation in Semantic Role Labels: PropBank, VerbNet or both?", Proceedings of ACL-IJCNLP 2009, Singapore.[pdf]
  • I. Titov, J. Henderson, P. Merlo and G. Musillo (2009), "Online Graph Planarisation for Synchronous Parsing of Semantic and Syntactic Dependencies", Proceedings of IJCAI 2009, Pasadena, CA. [pdf]
  • Gesmundo A., J. Henderson, P. Merlo and I. Titov (2009) "A Latent Variable Model of Synchronous Syntactic-Semantic Parsing for Multiple Languages" Proceedings of the Conference on Natural Language Learning (CONLL 2009), Shared Task, Boulder, CO.[pdf]
  • Lonneke van der Plas, James Henderson and Paola Merlo (2009) "Domain adaptation with artificial data for semantic parsing of speech", Proceedings of NAACL 2009, short paper, Boulder,CO.[pdf]


  • Merlo P., G. Musillo (2008) "Semantic Parsing for High-Precision Semantic Role Labelling", CONLL 2008 [pdf]
  • Henderson, J. Paola Merlo, Gabriele Musillo and Ivan Titov (2008) "A Latent Variable Model of Synchronous Parsing for Syntactic and Semantic Dependencies", CONLL 08 shared task [pdf]
  • Gabriele Musillo and Paola Merlo (2008) "Unlexicalised Hidden Variable Models of Split Dependency Grammars", ACL 2008 [pdf]


  • Merlo P., E. Esteve Ferrer (2006) "The Notion of Argument in PP Attachment", Computational Linguistics 32(2). [pdf]
  • G. Musillo, P. Merlo (2006) "Accurate Parsing of the Proposition Bank" NAACL 2006 [pdf]
  • G. Musillo, P. Merlo (2006) " Robust Parsing of the Proposition Bank" ROMAND, EACL 2006 workshop, Trento [pdf]


  • Merlo P., G. Musillo (2005) "Accurate Function Parsing", EMNLP 2005, Vancouver, Canada, 620--627. [pdf]
  • G. Musillo, P. Merlo (2005) "Lexical and Structural Biases for Function Parsing", IWPT 2005, Vancouver, Canada, 83--93. [pdf]
  • G. Musillo, P. Merlo (2005) "Assigning Function Labels to Unparsed Text", RANLP 2005, Borovetz, Bulgaria, 340--347. [pdf]


  • P. Merlo S. Stevenson (2004) "Structure and Frequency in Verb Classification", Incontro di Grammatica Generativa, Venice, Italy. [pdf]


  • P. Merlo (2003) "Generalised PP-attachment Disambiguation using Corpus-based Linguistic Diagnostics", EACL, Budapest, Hungary, 251--258. [pdf]
  • P. Merlo, J. Henderson, G. Schneider and E. Wehrli (2003), ``Learning Document Similarity using NLP'', Linguistik-online


  • S. Stevenson and P. Merlo (2002). ``Words, numbers and all that: the lexicon in sentence understanding.'' In P. Merlo and S. Stevenson, Eds., The Lexical Basis of Sentence Processing: Formal, Computational and Experimental Issues, 1-38. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Introduction to edited volume)
  • Merlo P., S. Stevenson, V. Tsang and G. Allaria (2002) "A Multilingual Paradigm for Automatic Verb Classification", Procs. of the 40th Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL'02). [pdf]


  • Merlo P and S. Stevenson (2001) "Automatic Verb Classification based on Statistical Distribution of Argument Structure", Computational Linguistics,  27:3, pp. 373--408.  (pdf file)
  • Merlo P. and M. Leybold  (2001) " Automatic Distinction of Arguments and Modifiers: the Case of Prepositional Phrases", Workshop on Computational Language  Learning (Connl 2001), Toulouse, France.  (postscript )


  • Stevenson S. and P. Merlo, (2000) "Automatic Lexical Acquisition Based on Statistical Distributions", COLING 2000, Saarbruecken, Germany. (postscript)
  • Merlo P. and S. Stevenson (2000), ``Lexical Syntax and Parsing Architecture'', Architecture and Mechanisms of Sentence Processing, M. Crocker, M. Pickering e C. Clifton (eds.), Cambridge University Press. (version postscript)


  • Merlo P. and S.Stevenson (1999). ``Language Acquisition and Ambiguity Resolution: The Role of Frequency Distributions.'' Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Vancouver, Canada, August, 1999. (postscript)
  • Stevenson S., P.Merlo, N.Kariaeva, and K.Whitehouse (1999). ``Supervised Learning of Lexical Semantic Verb Classes Using Frequency Distributions.'' Proceedings of SigLex99: Standardizing Lexical Resources. College Park, Maryland, June, 1999. (postscript)
  • Stevenson S. and P.Merlo (1999). ``Automatic Verb Classification Using Grammatical Features.'' Proceedings of the Ninth Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics\/},45--52. Bergen, Norway, June, 1999. (postscript)


  • Berthouzoz C. et P. Merlo (1998), ``Statistical Ambiguity Resolution for Grammar-based Parsing'', Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing: Selected Papers from RANLP'97, Current Issues in Linguistic Theory, Nicolas Nicolov et Ruslan Mitkov (eds.), John Benjamins, Amsterdam/Philadelphia. (postscript)
  • Merlo P. et S. Stevenson (1998), ``What Grammars Tell Us about Corpora: the Case of Reduced Relative Clauses'', Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Very Large Corpora, Montreal, CA, 134--142. (postscript)
  • Barbero C., Lombardo V., Lesmo L. et P. Merlo (1998), ``Integration of Syntactic and Lexical Information in a Hierarchical Dependency Grammar'', Proceedings of the Workshop on Processing of Dependency-based Grammars, Montreal, CA, 58--67.


  • Stevenson S. and P. Merlo (1997). ``Lexical Structure and Parsing Complexity.'' Language and Cognitive Processes,12: 2, 1997.
  • Merlo P., Crocker M., and Berthouzoz C.,`` Attaching Multiple Prepositional Phrases: Generalized Backed-Off Estimation", Proceedings of the Second Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, Providence, RI, 1997. (available from the cmp-lg archives.)
  • Berthouzoz C. and P. Merlo``Statistical Ambiguity Resolution for Principle-based Parsing', Proceedings of the 2nd Conference on Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (RANLP-97), Bulgaria, 1997.
  • Berthouzoz C. and P. Merlo ``Filtrage Structurel versus Filtrage Statistique: Expériences sur la Résolution de l'Ambiguïté Syntaxique. Actes des 1ères JST FRANCIL, pp 353-359, Avignon, 1997.


  • Merlo P.,"Grammatica Modulare e Parsing ", Sistemi Intelligenti, 8(1), 99--121, 1996.
  • Merlo P.,"Modularity and Information Content Classes in Principle-based Parsing", Computational Linguistics, 21(4), 515-541, 1995.
  • Merlo P. (1994),``A Corpus-based Analysis of Verb Continuation Frequencies for Sentence Processing." Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, Special Issue on Sentence Processing, 23(6), 435--457.
  • Merlo P. (1989),``Risultative in Italiano ed Inglese." Rivista di Grammatica Generativa, 14, 29--55.