# Symposium on the Occasion

of the 100th Anniversary of ICMI

### (Rome, 5–8 March 2008)

PLENARY LECTURE #3

### Perspectives on the balance between application & modelling and 'pure' mathematics in the teaching and learning of mathematics

The need to have mathematics be useful outside the mathematics classroom has always been present in the history of organised mathematics education. Very often this need has given rise to tensions between the role to be devoted to pure mathematics and applications, respectively. More recently, the active building of mathematical models, beyond established applications of mathematics, has entered the discussion. This talk will examine from a historical perspective the evolution of the balance between extra-mathematical applications and modelling, and the study of disciplinary mathematics. Significant moments in the development of this balance from an ICMI perspective will be highlighted.
**Mogens Niss (Denmark); reactor: Toshi Ikeda (Japan)**