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  1. Investigations on therapeutic glucocerebrosidases through paired detection with fluorescent activity-based probes
    W. W. Kallemeijn, S. Scheij, S. Hoogendoorn, M. D. Witte, D. Herrera Moro Chao, C. P. A. A. van Roomen, R. Ottenhoff, H. S. Overkleeft, R. G. Boot, J. M. F. G. Aerts, A. Dardis
    PLoS ONE 2017, 12, 0170268

Deficiency of glucocerebrosidase (GBA) causes Gaucher disease (GD). In the common non-neuronopathic GD type I variant, glucosylceramide accumulates primarily in the lysosomes of visceral macrophages. Supplementing storage cells with lacking enzyme is accomplished via chronic intravenous administration of recombinant GBA containing mannose-terminated N-linked glycans, mediating the selective uptake by macrophages expressing mannose-binding lectin(s). Two recombinant GBA preparations with distinct N-linked glycans are registered in Europe for treatment of type I GD: imiglucerase (Genzyme), contains predominantly Man(3) glycans, and velaglucerase (Shire PLC) Man(9) glycans. Activity-based probes (ABPs) enable fluorescent labeling of recombinant GBA preparations through their covalent attachment to the catalytic nucleophile E340 of GBA. We comparatively studied binding and uptake of ABP-labeled imiglucerase and velaglucerase in isolated dendritic cells, cultured human macrophages and living mice, through simultaneous detection of different GBAs by paired measurements. Uptake of ABP-labeled rGBAs by dendritic cells was comparable, as well as the bio-distribution following equimolar intravenous administration to mice. ABP-labeled rGBAs were recovered largely in liver, white-blood cells, bone marrow and spleen. Lungs, brain and skin, affected tissues in severe GD types II and III, were only poorly supplemented. Small, but significant differences were noted in binding and uptake of rGBAs in cultured human macrophages, in the absence and presence of mannan. Mannan-competed binding and uptake were largest for velaglucerase, when determined with single enzymes or as equimolar mixtures of both enzymes. Vice versa, imiglucerase showed more prominent binding and uptake not competed by mannan. Uptake of recombinant GBAs by cultured macrophages seems to involve multiple receptors, including several mannose-binding lectins. Differences among cells from different donors (n = 12) were noted, but the same trends were always observed. Our study suggests that further insight in targeting and efficacy of enzyme therapy of individual Gaucher patients could be obtained by the use of recombinant GBA, trace-labeled with an ABP, preferably equipped with an infrared fluorophore or other reporter tag suitable for in vivo imaging.

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0170268