Noordally, Z., Land, L., Trichtinger, C., Dalvit, I., de Meyer, M., Wang, K., Fitzpatrick, T.B.* Clock and riboswitch control of THIC in tandem are essential for appropriate gauging of TDP levels under light/dark cycles in Arabidopsis. bioRxiv (2022), doi:

Pesquera, M., Martinez, J., Wang, K., Hofmann, M., Loubéry, S., Steensma, P., Hothorn, M.,* Fitzpatrick, T.B.* Structural and functional insight into the plant unique multimodular triphosphosphate tunnel metalloenzymes of Arabidopsis thaliana. The Journal of Biological Chemistry in press bioRxiv (2022), doi: (*co-corresponding authors)

Liu, Z., Farkas, P., Wang, K., Kohli, M.-O., Fitzpatrick, T.B.* B vitamin supply in plants and humans: the importance of vitamer homeostasis. The Plant Journal (2022), 111(3):662-682.

Chew Y.-H., Seaton, D.D., Mengin, V., Flis, A., Mugford, S.T., George, G.M., Moulin, M., Hume, A., Zeeman, S.C., Fitzpatrick, T.B., Smith, A.M., Stitt, M., Millar, A.J. The Arabidopsis Framework Model version 2 predicts the organism-level effects of circadian clock gene mis-regulation. In Silico Plants (2022), 4(2):1-15.

Mangel, N.,§ Fudge, J.B.,§ Gruissem, W.,* Fitzpatrick, T.B.,* Vanderschuren, H.* Natural variation in vitamin B1 and vitamin B6 contents in rice germplasm. Frontiers in Plant Science (2022)13:856880 (§ co-first authors; *co-corresponding authors). PMID: 35444674

Altensell, J., Wartenberg, R., Haferkamp, I., Hassler, S., Scherer, V., Steensma, P., Fitzpatrick, T.B., Sharma, A., Ibanez, O.S., Pribil, M., Lehmann, M., Leister, D., Kleine, T., Neuhaus, H.E.: Inactivation of a pyridoxal-phosphate phosphatase suppresses the dwarf phenotype of Arabidopsis er-ant1 mutants. Plant Physiology (2022)189(1):49-65. PMID: 35139220

Liu, Y., Maniero, R.A., Giehl, R.F.H., Melzer, M., Steensma, P., Krouk, G., Fitzpatrick, T.B., von Wirén, N.: PDX1.1-dependent biosynthesis of vitamin B6 protects roots from ammonium induced oxidative stress. Molecular Plant (2022), 15(5):820-839. PMID: 35063660

Strobbe, S., Verstraete, J., Fitzpatrick, T.B., Faustino, M., Lourenço, T.F., Margarida Oliveira, M., Stove, C., Van Der Straeten, D.: A novel panel of yeast assays for the assessment of thiamin and its biosynthetic intermediates in plant tissues. New Phytologist (2022)234(2):748-763. PMID: 35037254

Colinas, M. & Fitzpatrick, T.B.: Coenzymes and the primary and specialized metabolism interface. Current Opinion in Plant Biology (2022), 66:102170. PMID:35063913

Gupta, K.J., Chandra Kaladhar, V., Fitzpatrick, T.B., Fernie, A.R., Møller, I.M., Loake, G.J.: Nitric oxide regulation of plant metabolism. Molecular Plant (2022), 15(2):228-242. PMID: 34971792

Gorelova, V., Colinas, M., Dell'Aglio, E., Flis, P., Salt, D.E., Fitzpatrick, T.B.: A deficit in phosphorylated B6 vitamers in SALT OVERLY SENSITIVE 4 mutants compromises shoot and root development. Plant Physiology (2022), 188(1):220-240. PMID:34730814.

Fitzpatrick, T.B. & Noordally, Z.: Of clocks and coenzymes in plants: intimately connected cycles guiding central metabolism? New Phytologist (2021) Tansley review, 230(2):416-432. PMID: 33264424.

Hofmann, M., Loubéry, S., Fitzpatrick, T.B.: On the nature of thiamine triphosphate in Arabidopsis. Plant Direct (2020), 4(8):e00258. PMID:  32885135.

Fitzpatrick, T.B., Chapman, L.M.: The importance of thiamine (vitamin B1) for plant health: From crop yield to biofortification. The Journal of Biological Chemistry (2020), 295(34):12002-12013. Part of the "Plants in the real world" review series. PMID: 32554808.

Noordally, Z.B., Trichtinger, C., Dalvit, I., Hofmann, M., Roux, C., Zamboni, N., Pourcel, L., Gas-Pascual, E., Gisler, A., Fitzpatrick, T.B.: The coenzyme thiamine diphosphate displays a daily rhythm in the Arabidopsis nucleus. Communications Biology (2020), 3(1):209. PMID: 32372067.

Noordally, Z.B. & Dodd, A.N.: Plants signal the time. The Biochemist (2020), 42(2):28-31.

Dell'Aglio, E., Dalvit, I., Loubéry, S., Fitzpatrick, T.B.: Clarification of the dispensability of PDX1.2 for Arabidopsis viability using CRISPR/Cas. BMC Plant Biology (2019), 19(1):464. PMID: 31684863.

Mangel N., Fudge J.B., Li K.T., Wu T.Y., Tohge T., Fernie A.R., Szurek B., Fitzpatrick T.B.,* Gruissem W.,* Vanderschuren H.* Enhancement of vitamin B levels in rice expressing Arabidopsis vitamin B6 biosynthesis de novo genes. The Plant Journal (2019), 99(6):1047-1065. PMID 31063672 (*co-corresponding authors).

Rosado-Souza L., Proost S., Moulin M., Bergmann S., Bocobza S., Aharoni A., Fitzpatrick T.B., Mutwil M., Fernie A.R., Obata T.: Appropriate thiamin pyrophosphate levels are required for acclimation to changes in photoperiod. Plant Physiology (2019), 180(1):185-197. PMID: 30837347.

Robinson G.R., Kaufmann M., Roux C., Martinez-Font J., Hothorn M., Thore S., Fitzpatrick T.B.: Crystal structure of the pseudoenzyme PDX1.2 in complex with its cognate enzyme PDX1.3: A total eclipse. Acta Crystallographica D (2019), 75(Pt 4):400-415. PMID: 30988257.

Dell'Aglio E., Boycheva S., Fitzpatrick T.B.: The pseudoenzyme PDX1.2 sustains vitamin B6 biosynthesis as a function of heat stress. Plant Physiology (2017), 174(4):2098-2112. PMID: 28550206.

Mangel N., Fudge J., Fitzpatrick T.B.,* Gruissem W.,* Vanderschurem H.*: Vitamin B1 diversity and characterization of biosynthesis genes in cassava. Journal of Experimental Botany (2017), 68(13):3351-3363. PMID: 28859374(*co-corresponding authors)

Van Der Straeten D., Fitzpatrick T.B., De Steur H.: Editorial overview: Biofortification of crops: achievements, future challenges, socio-economic, health and ethical aspects. Current Opinion in Biotechnology (2017), 44:7–10. PMID: 28342725. 

Fudge J., Mangel N., Gruissem W., Vanderschuren H., Fitzpatrick T.B.: Rationalising vitamin B6 biofortification in crop plants. Current Opinion in Biotechnology (2017), 44:130-137. PMID: 28086191.

Robinson G. C., Kaufmann M., Roux C., Fitzpatrick T.B.: Structural definition of the lysine swing in Arabidopsis thaliana PDX1: Intermediate channeling facilitating vitamin B6 biosynthesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2016), 113(40):E5821-E5829. PMID: 27647886.

Hofer A., Marques E., Kieliger N., Gatter S.N., Jordi S., Ferrari E., Hofmann M., Fitzpatrick T.B., Hottiger M.O., Jessen H.J.: Chemoselective Dimerization of Phosphates. Organic Letters (2016), 18(13):3222-5. PMID: 27308921.

Martinis J., Gas-Pascual E., Szydlowski N., Crèvecoeur M., Gisler A., Bürkle L., Fitzpatrick T.B.: Long distance transport of thiamine (vitamin B1) is concomitant with that of polyamines in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology (2016), 171(1):542-53. PMID: 27006489.

Colinas M. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: Interaction between vitamin B6 metabolism, nitrogen metabolism and autoimmunity. Plant Signalling and Behaviour (2016), 11(4):e1161876. PMID: 27018849.

Colinas M., Eisenhut M., Tohge T., Pesquera M., Fernie A.R., Weber A.P.M., Fitzpatrick T.B.: Balancing of B6 vitamers is essential for plant development and metabolism in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell (2016), 28(2):439-53. PMID: 26858304.

Li K.T., Moulin M., Mangel N., Albersen M., Verhoeven-Duif N.M., Ma Q., Zhang P., Fitzpatrick T.B.,* Gruissem W,* Vanderschuren H* Increased bioavailable vitamin B6 in field-grown transgenic cassava for dietary sufficiency. Nature Biotechnology (2015), 33(10):1029-32. PMID: 26448082. (*co-corresponding authors)

Colinas M. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: Natures balancing act: examining biosynthesis de novo, recycling and processing damaged vitamin B metabolitesCurrent Opinion in Plant Biology (2015), 25:98-106. PMID: 26005929.

Boycheva S., Dominguez A., Rolcik J., Boller T. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: Consequences of a deficit in vitamin B6 biosynthesis de novo for hormone homeostasis and root development in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology (2015), 167(1):102-17. PMID: 25475669.

Fitzpatrick T.B. & Thore S.: Complex behavior: from cannibalism to suicide in the vitamin B1 biosynthesis world. Current Opinion in Structural Biology (2014), 29C:34-43. PMID: 25260119.

Colinas M., Shaw H.V., Loubéry S., Kaufmann M., Moulin M. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: A pathway for repair of NAD(P)H in plants. The Journal of Biological Chemistry (2014), 289(21):14692-706. PMID: 24706747.

Boycheva S., Daviet L., Wolfender J.L. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: The rise of operon-like gene clusters in plants. Trends in Plant Science (2014), 19(7):447-59. PMID: 24582794.

Moccand C., Boycheva S., Surriabre P., Tambasco-Studart M., Raschke M., Kaufmann M. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: The pseudoenzyme PDX1.2 boosts vitamin B6 biosynthesis under heat and oxidative stress in Arabidopsis. The Journal of Biological Chemistry (2014), 289(12):8203-16. PMID: 24505140.

Coquille S., Roux C., Mehta A., Begley T.P., Fitzpatrick T.B. & Thore S.: High-resolution crystal structure of the eukaryotic HMP-P synthase (THIC) from Arabidopsis thaliana. Journal of Structural Biology (2013), 184(3):438-44. PMID: 24161603.

Moulin M., Nguyen G.T., Scaife M.A., Smith A.G. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: Analysis of Chlamydomonas thiamin metabolism in vivo reveals riboswitch plasticity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA (2013), 110(36):14622-7. PMID: 23959877.

Pourcel L., Moulin M. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: Examining strategies to facilitate vitamin B1 biofortification of plants by genetic engineering. Frontiers in Plant Science (2013), 4:160. PMID: 23755056.

Vanderschuren H., Boycheva S., Li K.T., Szydlowski N., Gruissem W. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: Strategies for vitamin B6 biofortification of plants: a dual role as a micronutrient and a stress protectant. Frontiers in Plant Science (2013), 4:143. PMID: 23734155.

Szydlowski N., Bürkle L., Pourcel L., Moulin M., Stolz J. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: Recycling of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) by PUP1 in Arabidopsis. The Plant Journal (2013), 75(1):40-52. PMID: 23551747.

Coquille S., Roux C., Fitzpatrick T.B. & Thore S.: The last piece in the vitamin B1 biosynthesis puzzle: structural and functional insight into yeast 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine phosphate (HMP-P) synthase. The Journal of Biological Chemistry (2012), 287(50):42333-43. PMID: 23048037.

Fitzpatrick T.B., Basset G.J., Borel P., Carrari F., Dellapenna D., Fraser P.D., Hellmann H., Osorio S., Rothan C., Valpuesta V., Caris-Veyrat C. & Fernie A.R.: Vitamin deficiencies in humans: can plant science help? Plant Cell (2012), 24(2):395-414. PMID: 22374394.

Raschke M., Boycheva S., Crevecoeur M., Nunes-Nesi A., Witt S., Fernie A.R., Amrhein N. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: Enhanced levels of vitamin B(6) increase aerial organ size and positively affect stress tolerance in Arabidopsis. The Plant Journal (2011), 66(3):414-432. PMID: 21241390.

Moccand C., Kaufmann M. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: It takes two to tango: defining an essential second active site in pyridoxal 5'-phosphate synthase. PLoS One (2011), 6(1):e16042. PMID: 21283685.

Fitzpatrick T.B., Moccand C. & Roux C.: Vitamin B6 biosynthesis: charting the mechanistic landscape. Chembiochem (2010), 11(9):1185-1193. PMID: 20397182.

Raschle T., Speziga D., Kress W., Moccand C., Gehrig P., Amrhein N., Weber-Ban E. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: Intersubunit cross-talk in pyridoxal 5'-phosphate synthase, coordinated by the C terminus of the synthase subunit. The Journal of Biological Chemistry (2009), 284(12):7706-7718. PMID: 19074821.

Benabdellah K., Azcon-Aguilar C., Valderas A., Speziga D., Fitzpatrick T.B. & Ferrol N.: GintPDX1 encodes a protein involved in vitamin B6 biosynthesis that is up-regulated by oxidative stress in the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices. New Phytologist (2009), 184(3):682-693. PMID: 19674326.

Tambasco-Studart M., Tews I., Amrhein N. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: Functional analysis of PDX2 from Arabidopsis, a glutaminase involved in vitamin B6 biosynthesis. Plant Physiology (2007), 144(2):915-925. PMID: 17468224.

Raschle T., Arigoni D., Brunisholz R., Rechsteiner H., Amrhein N. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: Reaction mechanism of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate synthase: detection of an enzyme-bound chromophoric intermediate. The Journal of Biological Chemistry (2007), 282(9):6098-6105. PMID: 17189272.

Raschke M., Burkle L., Muller N., Nunes-Nesi A., Fernie A.R., Arigoni D., Amrhein N. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: Vitamin B1 biosynthesis in plants requires the essential iron sulfur cluster protein, THIC. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA (2007), 104(49):19637-19642. PMID: 18048325.

Fitzpatrick T.B., Amrhein N., Kappes B., Macheroux P., Tews I. & Raschle T.: Two independent routes of de novo vitamin B6 biosynthesis: not that different after all. Biochemical Journal (2007), 407(1):1-13. PMID: 17822383.

Titiz O., Tambasco-Studart M., Warzych E., Apel K., Amrhein N., Laloi C. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: PDX1 is essential for vitamin B6 biosynthesis, development and stress tolerance in Arabidopsis. The Plant Journal (2006), 48(6):933-946. PMID: 17227548.

Strohmeier M., Raschle T., Mazurkiewicz J., Rippe K., Sinning I., §Fitzpatrick T.B. & §Tews I.: Structure of a bacterial pyridoxal 5'-phosphate synthase complex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA (2006), 103(51):19284-19289. PMID: 17159152. (§ co-corresponding authors)

Gengenbacher M., Fitzpatrick T.B., Raschle T., Flicker K., Sinning I., Muller S., Macheroux P., Tews I. & Kappes B.: Vitamin B6 biosynthesis by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum: biochemical and structural insights. The Journal of Biological Chemistry (2006), 281(6):3633-3641. PMID: 16339145.

Tambasco-Studart M., Titiz O., Raschle T., Forster G., Amrhein N. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: Vitamin B6 biosynthesis in higher plants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA (2005), 102(38):13687-13692. PMID: 16157873.

Raschle T., Amrhein N. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: On the two components of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate synthase from Bacillus subtilis. The Journal of Biological Chemistry (2005), 280(37):32291-32300. PMID: 16030023.

Morokutti A., Lyskowski A., Sollner S., Pointner E., Fitzpatrick T.B., Kratky C., Gruber K. & Macheroux P.: Structure and function of YcnD from Bacillus subtilis, a flavin-containing oxidoreductase. Biochemistry (2005), 44(42):13724-13733. PMID: 16229462.

Kitzing K., Fitzpatrick T.B., Wilken C., Sawa J., Bourenkov G.P., Macheroux P. & Clausen T.: The 1.3 Å crystal structure of the flavoprotein YqjM reveals a novel class of Old Yellow Enzymes. The Journal of Biological Chemistry (2005), 280(30):27904-27913. PMID: 15890652.

McConkey G.A., Pinney J.W., Westhead D.R., Plueckhahn K., Fitzpatrick T.B., Macheroux P. & Kappes B.: Annotating the Plasmodium genome and the enigma of the shikimate pathway. Trends in Parasitology (2004), 20(2):60-65. PMID: 14747018.

Fitzpatrick T.B., Auweter S., Kitzing K., Clausen T., Amrhein N. & Macheroux P.: Structural and functional impairment of an Old Yellow Enzyme homologue upon affinity tag incorporation. Protein Expression and Purification (2004), 36(2):280-291. PMID: 15249051.

Fitzpatrick T.B., Amrhein N. & Macheroux P.: Characterization of YqjM, an Old Yellow Enzyme homolog from Bacillus subtilis involved in the oxidative stress response. The Journal of Biological Chemistry (2003), 278(22):19891-19897. PMID: 12660247.

Geyer A., Fitzpatrick T.B., Pawelek P.D., Kitzing K., Vrielink A., Ghisla S. & Macheroux P.: Structure and characterization of the glycan moiety of L-amino-acid oxidase from the Malayan pit viper Calloselasma rhodostoma. European Journal of Biochemistry (2001), 268(14):4044-4053. PMID: 11453999.

Fitzpatrick T.B., Killer P., Thomas R.M., Jelesarov I., Amrhein N. & Macheroux P.: Chorismate synthase from the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima combines thermostability and increased rigidity with catalytic and spectral properties similar to mesophilic counterparts. The Journal of Biological Chemistry (2001), 276(21):18052-18059. PMID: 11279147.

Fitzpatrick T., Ricken S., Lanzer M., Amrhein N., Macheroux P. & Kappes B.: Subcellular localization and characterization of chorismate synthase in the apicomplexan Plasmodium falciparum. Molecular Microbiology (2001), 40(1):65-75. PMID: 11298276.

O'Sullivan D.B., O'Connell T.P., Mahon M.M., Koenig A., Milne J.J., Fitzpatrick T.B. & Malthouse J.P.: 13C NMR study of how the oxyanion pKa values of subtilisin and chymotrypsin tetrahedral adducts are affected by different amino acid residues binding in enzyme subsites S1-S4. Biochemistry (1999), 38(19):6187-6194. PMID: 10320347.

Mahon M.M., Gramatikova S.I., Christen P., Fitzpatrick T.B. & Malthouse J.P.: The pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent catalytic antibody 15A9: its efficiency and stereospecificity in catalysing the exchange of the alpha-protons of glycine. FEBS Letters (1998), 427(1):74-78. PMID: 9613603.

Fitzpatrick T.B. & Malthouse J.P.: A substrate-induced change in the stereospecificity of the serine-hydroxymethyltransferase-catalysed exchange of the alpha-protons of amino acids: evidence for a second catalytic site. European Journal of Biochemistry (1998), 252(1):113-117. PMID: 9523719.

Fitzpatrick T.B. & Malthouse J.P.: The effect of histidine-228 on the catalytic efficiency and stereospecificity of the serine hydroxymethyltransferase catalysed exchange of the alpha-protons of amino acids. Biochimica Biophysica Acta (1998), 1386(1):220-226. PMID: 9675289.

Malthouse J.P., Fitzpatrick T.B., Milne J.J., Grehn L. & Ragnarsson U.: Enzymatic synthesis of isotopically labelled serine and tryptophan for application in peptide synthesis. Journal of Peptide Science (1997), 3(5):361-366. PMID: 9391911.

Vitamins & Environmental Stress Responses
in Plants
Department of Plant Sciences,
University of Geneva,
Quai E. Ansermet 30,
1211-Geneva, Switzerland

Last update: 7 September 2021

Prof. Teresa Fitzpatrick

Full Professor
Email: theresa.fitzpatrick(at)
 Tel: +41 22 379 30 16 (direct)
Tel: +41 22 379 35 52 (secretary)