Farkas, P. and Fitzpatrick, T.B. Two PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE HOMEOSTASIS PROTEINs are essential for management of the coenzyme in plants. The Plant Cell (2024) in press (

Fitzpatrick, T.B., Dalvit, I., Chang, F.-H., Wang, K., Fudge, J.B., Chang, S.-H., Maillot, B., Gruissem, W. Vitamin B1 enhancement in the endosperm of rice through thiamine sequestration. Plant Biotechnology Journal (2024) in press

Fitzpatrick, T.B. B vitamins - an update on their importance for plant homeostasis. Annual Review in Plant Biology (2024) in press doi: 10.1146/annurev-arplant-060223-025336

Strobbe, S., Verstraete, J., Fitzpatrick, T.B., Stove, C., Van Der Straeten, D. A protocol for a turbidimetric assay using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae thiamine biosynthesis mutant to estimate total vitamin B1 content in plant tissue samples. Plant Methods (2023), 19(1):144.

Steensma, P., Eisenhut, M., Colinas, M., Rosado-Souza L., Fernie A.R., Weber A.P.M., Fitzpatrick T.B. PDX3 is important for carbon/nitrogen balance in Arabidopsis associated with distinct environmental conditions. Plant Physiology (2023), 193(2):1433-1455PMID: 37453131

Noordally Z., Land L., Trichtinger C., Dalvit I., de Meyer M., Wang K., Fitzpatrick T.B. Clock and riboswitch control of THIC in tandem are essential for appropriate gauging of TDP levels under light/dark cycles in Arabidopsis. iScience (2023), 26(3):106134. PMID: 36866249

Pesquera M., Martinez J., Wang K., Hofmann M., Loubéry S., Steensma P., Hothorn M.,* Fitzpatrick T.B.* Structural and functional insight into the plant unique multimodular triphosphosphate tunnel metalloenzymes of Arabidopsis thaliana. The Journal of Biological Chemistry (2022), 298(11):102438. (*co-corresponding authors). PMID: 36049521

Liu Z., Farkas P., Wang K., Kohli M.-O., Fitzpatrick T.B. B vitamin supply in plants and humans: the importance of vitamer homeostasis. The Plant Journal (2022), 111(3):662-682. PMID: 35673947

Chew Y.-H., Seaton D.D., Mengin V., Flis A., Mugford S.T., George G.M., Moulin M., Hume A., Zeeman S.C., Fitzpatrick T.B., Smith A.M., Stitt M., Millar A.J. The Arabidopsis Framework Model version 2 predicts the organism-level effects of circadian clock gene mis-regulation. In Silico Plants (2022), 4(2):1-15.

Mangel N.,§ Fudge J.B.,§ Gruissem W.,* Fitzpatrick T.B.,* Vanderschuren H.* Natural variation in vitamin B1 and vitamin B6 contents in rice germplasm. Frontiers in Plant Science (2022)13:856880 (§ co-first authors; *co-corresponding authors). PMID: 35444674

Altensell J., Wartenberg R., Haferkamp I., Hassler S., Scherer V., Steensma P., Fitzpatrick T.B., Sharma A., Ibanez O.S., Pribil M., Lehmann M., Leister D., Kleine T., Neuhaus H.E.: Inactivation of a pyridoxal-phosphate phosphatase suppresses the dwarf phenotype of Arabidopsis er-ant1 mutants. Plant Physiology (2022)189(1):49-65. PMID: 35139220

Liu Y., Maniero R.A., Giehl R.F.H., Melzer M., Steensma P., Krouk G., Fitzpatrick T.B., von Wirén N.: PDX1.1-dependent biosynthesis of vitamin B6 protects roots from ammonium induced oxidative stress. Molecular Plant (2022), 15(5):820-839. PMID: 35063660

Strobbe S., Verstraete J., Fitzpatrick T.B., Faustino M., Lourenço T.F., Margarida Oliveira M., Stove C., Van Der Straeten D.: A novel panel of yeast assays for the assessment of thiamin and its biosynthetic intermediates in plant tissues. New Phytologist (2022)234(2):748-763. PMID: 35037254

Colinas M. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: Coenzymes and the primary and specialized metabolism interface. Current Opinion in Plant Biology (2022), 66:102170. PMID:35063913

Gupta K.J., Chandra Kaladhar V., Fitzpatrick T.B., Fernie A.R., Møller I.M., Loake G.J.: Nitric oxide regulation of plant metabolism. Molecular Plant (2022), 15(2):228-242. PMID: 34971792

Gorelova V., Colinas M., Dell'Aglio E., Flis P., Salt D.E., Fitzpatrick T.B.: A deficit in phosphorylated B6 vitamers in SALT OVERLY SENSITIVE 4 mutants compromises shoot and root development. Plant Physiology (2022), 188(1):220-240. PMID:34730814.

Fitzpatrick T.B. & Noordally Z.: Of clocks and coenzymes in plants: intimately connected cycles guiding central metabolism? New Phytologist (2021) Tansley review, 230(2):416-432. PMID: 33264424.

Hofmann M., Loubéry S., Fitzpatrick T.B.: On the nature of thiamine triphosphate in Arabidopsis. Plant Direct (2020), 4(8):e00258. PMID:  32885135.

Fitzpatrick T.B., Chapman L.M.: The importance of thiamine (vitamin B1) for plant health: From crop yield to biofortification. The Journal of Biological Chemistry (2020), 295(34):12002-12013. Part of the "Plants in the real world" review series. PMID: 32554808.

Noordally Z.B., Trichtinger C., Dalvit I., Hofmann M., Roux C., Zamboni N., Pourcel L., Gas-Pascual E., Gisler A., Fitzpatrick T.B.: The coenzyme thiamine diphosphate displays a daily rhythm in the Arabidopsis nucleus. Communications Biology (2020), 3(1):209. PMID: 32372067.

Noordally, Z.B. & Dodd, A.N.: Plants signal the time. The Biochemist (2020), 42(2):28-31.

Dell'Aglio, E., Dalvit, I., Loubéry, S., Fitzpatrick, T.B.: Clarification of the dispensability of PDX1.2 for Arabidopsis viability using CRISPR/Cas. BMC Plant Biology (2019), 19(1):464. PMID: 31684863.

Mangel N., Fudge J.B., Li K.T., Wu T.Y., Tohge T., Fernie A.R., Szurek B., Fitzpatrick T.B.,* Gruissem W.,* Vanderschuren H.* Enhancement of vitamin B levels in rice expressing Arabidopsis vitamin B6 biosynthesis de novo genes. The Plant Journal (2019), 99(6):1047-1065. PMID 31063672 (*co-corresponding authors).

Rosado-Souza L., Proost S., Moulin M., Bergmann S., Bocobza S., Aharoni A., Fitzpatrick T.B., Mutwil M., Fernie A.R., Obata T.: Appropriate thiamin pyrophosphate levels are required for acclimation to changes in photoperiod. Plant Physiology (2019), 180(1):185-197. PMID: 30837347.

Robinson G.R., Kaufmann M., Roux C., Martinez-Font J., Hothorn M., Thore S., Fitzpatrick T.B.: Crystal structure of the pseudoenzyme PDX1.2 in complex with its cognate enzyme PDX1.3: A total eclipse. Acta Crystallographica D (2019), 75(Pt 4):400-415. PMID: 30988257.

Dell'Aglio E., Boycheva S., Fitzpatrick T.B.: The pseudoenzyme PDX1.2 sustains vitamin B6 biosynthesis as a function of heat stress. Plant Physiology (2017), 174(4):2098-2112. PMID: 28550206.

Mangel N., Fudge J., Fitzpatrick T.B.,* Gruissem W.,* Vanderschurem H.*: Vitamin B1 diversity and characterization of biosynthesis genes in cassava. Journal of Experimental Botany (2017), 68(13):3351-3363. PMID: 28859374(*co-corresponding authors)

Van Der Straeten D., Fitzpatrick T.B., De Steur H.: Editorial overview: Biofortification of crops: achievements, future challenges, socio-economic, health and ethical aspects. Current Opinion in Biotechnology (2017), 44:7–10. PMID: 28342725. 

Fudge J., Mangel N., Gruissem W., Vanderschuren H., Fitzpatrick T.B.: Rationalising vitamin B6 biofortification in crop plants. Current Opinion in Biotechnology (2017), 44:130-137. PMID: 28086191.

Robinson G. C., Kaufmann M., Roux C., Fitzpatrick T.B.: Structural definition of the lysine swing in Arabidopsis thaliana PDX1: Intermediate channeling facilitating vitamin B6 biosynthesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2016), 113(40):E5821-E5829. PMID: 27647886.

Hofer A., Marques E., Kieliger N., Gatter S.N., Jordi S., Ferrari E., Hofmann M., Fitzpatrick T.B., Hottiger M.O., Jessen H.J.: Chemoselective Dimerization of Phosphates. Organic Letters (2016), 18(13):3222-5. PMID: 27308921.

Martinis J., Gas-Pascual E., Szydlowski N., Crèvecoeur M., Gisler A., Bürkle L., Fitzpatrick T.B.: Long distance transport of thiamine (vitamin B1) is concomitant with that of polyamines in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology (2016), 171(1):542-53. PMID: 27006489.

Colinas M. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: Interaction between vitamin B6 metabolism, nitrogen metabolism and autoimmunity. Plant Signalling and Behaviour (2016), 11(4):e1161876. PMID: 27018849.

Colinas M., Eisenhut M., Tohge T., Pesquera M., Fernie A.R., Weber A.P.M., Fitzpatrick T.B.: Balancing of B6 vitamers is essential for plant development and metabolism in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell (2016), 28(2):439-53. PMID: 26858304.

Li K.T., Moulin M., Mangel N., Albersen M., Verhoeven-Duif N.M., Ma Q., Zhang P., Fitzpatrick T.B.,* Gruissem W,* Vanderschuren H* Increased bioavailable vitamin B6 in field-grown transgenic cassava for dietary sufficiency. Nature Biotechnology (2015), 33(10):1029-32. PMID: 26448082. (*co-corresponding authors)

Colinas M. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: Natures balancing act: examining biosynthesis de novo, recycling and processing damaged vitamin B metabolitesCurrent Opinion in Plant Biology (2015), 25:98-106. PMID: 26005929.

Boycheva S., Dominguez A., Rolcik J., Boller T. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: Consequences of a deficit in vitamin B6 biosynthesis de novo for hormone homeostasis and root development in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology (2015), 167(1):102-17. PMID: 25475669.

Fitzpatrick T.B. & Thore S.: Complex behavior: from cannibalism to suicide in the vitamin B1 biosynthesis world. Current Opinion in Structural Biology (2014), 29C:34-43. PMID: 25260119.

Colinas M., Shaw H.V., Loubéry S., Kaufmann M., Moulin M. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: A pathway for repair of NAD(P)H in plants. The Journal of Biological Chemistry (2014), 289(21):14692-706. PMID: 24706747.

Boycheva S., Daviet L., Wolfender J.L. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: The rise of operon-like gene clusters in plants. Trends in Plant Science (2014), 19(7):447-59. PMID: 24582794.

Moccand C., Boycheva S., Surriabre P., Tambasco-Studart M., Raschke M., Kaufmann M. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: The pseudoenzyme PDX1.2 boosts vitamin B6 biosynthesis under heat and oxidative stress in Arabidopsis. The Journal of Biological Chemistry (2014), 289(12):8203-16. PMID: 24505140.

Coquille S., Roux C., Mehta A., Begley T.P., Fitzpatrick T.B. & Thore S.: High-resolution crystal structure of the eukaryotic HMP-P synthase (THIC) from Arabidopsis thaliana. Journal of Structural Biology (2013), 184(3):438-44. PMID: 24161603.

Moulin M., Nguyen G.T., Scaife M.A., Smith A.G. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: Analysis of Chlamydomonas thiamin metabolism in vivo reveals riboswitch plasticity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA (2013), 110(36):14622-7. PMID: 23959877.

Pourcel L., Moulin M. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: Examining strategies to facilitate vitamin B1 biofortification of plants by genetic engineering. Frontiers in Plant Science (2013), 4:160. PMID: 23755056.

Vanderschuren H., Boycheva S., Li K.T., Szydlowski N., Gruissem W. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: Strategies for vitamin B6 biofortification of plants: a dual role as a micronutrient and a stress protectant. Frontiers in Plant Science (2013), 4:143. PMID: 23734155.

Szydlowski N., Bürkle L., Pourcel L., Moulin M., Stolz J. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: Recycling of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) by PUP1 in Arabidopsis. The Plant Journal (2013), 75(1):40-52. PMID: 23551747.

Coquille S., Roux C., Fitzpatrick T.B. & Thore S.: The last piece in the vitamin B1 biosynthesis puzzle: structural and functional insight into yeast 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine phosphate (HMP-P) synthase. The Journal of Biological Chemistry (2012), 287(50):42333-43. PMID: 23048037.

Fitzpatrick T.B., Basset G.J., Borel P., Carrari F., Dellapenna D., Fraser P.D., Hellmann H., Osorio S., Rothan C., Valpuesta V., Caris-Veyrat C. & Fernie A.R.: Vitamin deficiencies in humans: can plant science help? Plant Cell (2012), 24(2):395-414. PMID: 22374394.

Raschke M., Boycheva S., Crevecoeur M., Nunes-Nesi A., Witt S., Fernie A.R., Amrhein N. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: Enhanced levels of vitamin B(6) increase aerial organ size and positively affect stress tolerance in Arabidopsis. The Plant Journal (2011), 66(3):414-432. PMID: 21241390.

Moccand C., Kaufmann M. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: It takes two to tango: defining an essential second active site in pyridoxal 5'-phosphate synthase. PLoS One (2011), 6(1):e16042. PMID: 21283685.

Fitzpatrick T.B., Moccand C. & Roux C.: Vitamin B6 biosynthesis: charting the mechanistic landscape. Chembiochem (2010), 11(9):1185-1193. PMID: 20397182.

Raschle T., Speziga D., Kress W., Moccand C., Gehrig P., Amrhein N., Weber-Ban E. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: Intersubunit cross-talk in pyridoxal 5'-phosphate synthase, coordinated by the C terminus of the synthase subunit. The Journal of Biological Chemistry (2009), 284(12):7706-7718. PMID: 19074821.

Benabdellah K., Azcon-Aguilar C., Valderas A., Speziga D., Fitzpatrick T.B. & Ferrol N.: GintPDX1 encodes a protein involved in vitamin B6 biosynthesis that is up-regulated by oxidative stress in the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices. New Phytologist (2009), 184(3):682-693. PMID: 19674326.

Tambasco-Studart M., Tews I., Amrhein N. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: Functional analysis of PDX2 from Arabidopsis, a glutaminase involved in vitamin B6 biosynthesis. Plant Physiology (2007), 144(2):915-925. PMID: 17468224.

Raschle T., Arigoni D., Brunisholz R., Rechsteiner H., Amrhein N. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: Reaction mechanism of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate synthase: detection of an enzyme-bound chromophoric intermediate. The Journal of Biological Chemistry (2007), 282(9):6098-6105. PMID: 17189272.

Raschke M., Burkle L., Muller N., Nunes-Nesi A., Fernie A.R., Arigoni D., Amrhein N. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: Vitamin B1 biosynthesis in plants requires the essential iron sulfur cluster protein, THIC. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA (2007), 104(49):19637-19642. PMID: 18048325.

Fitzpatrick T.B., Amrhein N., Kappes B., Macheroux P., Tews I. & Raschle T.: Two independent routes of de novo vitamin B6 biosynthesis: not that different after all. Biochemical Journal (2007), 407(1):1-13. PMID: 17822383.

Titiz O., Tambasco-Studart M., Warzych E., Apel K., Amrhein N., Laloi C. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: PDX1 is essential for vitamin B6 biosynthesis, development and stress tolerance in Arabidopsis. The Plant Journal (2006), 48(6):933-946. PMID: 17227548.

Strohmeier M., Raschle T., Mazurkiewicz J., Rippe K., Sinning I., §Fitzpatrick T.B. & §Tews I.: Structure of a bacterial pyridoxal 5'-phosphate synthase complex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA (2006), 103(51):19284-19289. PMID: 17159152. (§ co-corresponding authors)

Gengenbacher M., Fitzpatrick T.B., Raschle T., Flicker K., Sinning I., Muller S., Macheroux P., Tews I. & Kappes B.: Vitamin B6 biosynthesis by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum: biochemical and structural insights. The Journal of Biological Chemistry (2006), 281(6):3633-3641. PMID: 16339145.

Tambasco-Studart M., Titiz O., Raschle T., Forster G., Amrhein N. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: Vitamin B6 biosynthesis in higher plants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA (2005), 102(38):13687-13692. PMID: 16157873.

Raschle T., Amrhein N. & Fitzpatrick T.B.: On the two components of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate synthase from Bacillus subtilis. The Journal of Biological Chemistry (2005), 280(37):32291-32300. PMID: 16030023.

Morokutti A., Lyskowski A., Sollner S., Pointner E., Fitzpatrick T.B., Kratky C., Gruber K. & Macheroux P.: Structure and function of YcnD from Bacillus subtilis, a flavin-containing oxidoreductase. Biochemistry (2005), 44(42):13724-13733. PMID: 16229462.

Kitzing K., Fitzpatrick T.B., Wilken C., Sawa J., Bourenkov G.P., Macheroux P. & Clausen T.: The 1.3 Å crystal structure of the flavoprotein YqjM reveals a novel class of Old Yellow Enzymes. The Journal of Biological Chemistry (2005), 280(30):27904-27913. PMID: 15890652.

McConkey G.A., Pinney J.W., Westhead D.R., Plueckhahn K., Fitzpatrick T.B., Macheroux P. & Kappes B.: Annotating the Plasmodium genome and the enigma of the shikimate pathway. Trends in Parasitology (2004), 20(2):60-65. PMID: 14747018.

Fitzpatrick T.B., Auweter S., Kitzing K., Clausen T., Amrhein N. & Macheroux P.: Structural and functional impairment of an Old Yellow Enzyme homologue upon affinity tag incorporation. Protein Expression and Purification (2004), 36(2):280-291. PMID: 15249051.

Fitzpatrick T.B., Amrhein N. & Macheroux P.: Characterization of YqjM, an Old Yellow Enzyme homolog from Bacillus subtilis involved in the oxidative stress response. The Journal of Biological Chemistry (2003), 278(22):19891-19897. PMID: 12660247.

Geyer A., Fitzpatrick T.B., Pawelek P.D., Kitzing K., Vrielink A., Ghisla S. & Macheroux P.: Structure and characterization of the glycan moiety of L-amino-acid oxidase from the Malayan pit viper Calloselasma rhodostoma. European Journal of Biochemistry (2001), 268(14):4044-4053. PMID: 11453999.

Fitzpatrick T.B., Killer P., Thomas R.M., Jelesarov I., Amrhein N. & Macheroux P.: Chorismate synthase from the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima combines thermostability and increased rigidity with catalytic and spectral properties similar to mesophilic counterparts. The Journal of Biological Chemistry (2001), 276(21):18052-18059. PMID: 11279147.

Fitzpatrick T., Ricken S., Lanzer M., Amrhein N., Macheroux P. & Kappes B.: Subcellular localization and characterization of chorismate synthase in the apicomplexan Plasmodium falciparum. Molecular Microbiology (2001), 40(1):65-75. PMID: 11298276.

O'Sullivan D.B., O'Connell T.P., Mahon M.M., Koenig A., Milne J.J., Fitzpatrick T.B. & Malthouse J.P.: 13C NMR study of how the oxyanion pKa values of subtilisin and chymotrypsin tetrahedral adducts are affected by different amino acid residues binding in enzyme subsites S1-S4. Biochemistry (1999), 38(19):6187-6194. PMID: 10320347.

Mahon M.M., Gramatikova S.I., Christen P., Fitzpatrick T.B. & Malthouse J.P.: The pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent catalytic antibody 15A9: its efficiency and stereospecificity in catalysing the exchange of the alpha-protons of glycine. FEBS Letters (1998), 427(1):74-78. PMID: 9613603.

Fitzpatrick T.B. & Malthouse J.P.: A substrate-induced change in the stereospecificity of the serine-hydroxymethyltransferase-catalysed exchange of the alpha-protons of amino acids: evidence for a second catalytic site. European Journal of Biochemistry (1998), 252(1):113-117. PMID: 9523719.

Fitzpatrick T.B. & Malthouse J.P.: The effect of histidine-228 on the catalytic efficiency and stereospecificity of the serine hydroxymethyltransferase catalysed exchange of the alpha-protons of amino acids. Biochimica Biophysica Acta (1998), 1386(1):220-226. PMID: 9675289.

Malthouse J.P., Fitzpatrick T.B., Milne J.J., Grehn L. & Ragnarsson U.: Enzymatic synthesis of isotopically labelled serine and tryptophan for application in peptide synthesis. Journal of Peptide Science (1997), 3(5):361-366. PMID: 9391911.

Vitamins & Environmental Stress Responses
in Plants
Department of Plant Sciences,
University of Geneva,
Quai E. Ansermet 30,
1211-Geneva, Switzerland

Last update: 7 September 2021

Prof. Teresa Fitzpatrick

Full Professor
Email: theresa.fitzpatrick(at)unige.ch
 Tel: +41 22 379 30 16 (direct)
Tel: +41 22 379 35 52 (secretary)