- Sforazzini, G.; Turdean, R.; Sakai, N.; Matile, S. “Double-Channel Photosystems with Antiparallel Redox Gradients: Templated Stack Exchange with Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines” Chem. Sci. 2013, 4, 1847-1851
We report the synthesis of multicomponent surface architectures composed of phthalocyanines (Pc), porphyrins (TPP) and naphthalenediimides (NDI). Naphthalenediimide stacks are grown first by self-organizing surface initiated disulfide-exchange polymerization (SOSIP). An oriented redox gradient driving electrons toward the surface is applied by growing electron-richer NDI stacks on top of poorer ones. Lateral stacks of porphyrins and phthalocyanines are then added by templated stack exchange (TSE). A three-component gradient is constructed to drive the holes away from the solid surface. Antiparallel gradients are found to minimize charge recombination during photocurrent generation. Templates used for stack exchange also serve as hole barriers, whereas their size has surprisingly little importance. These results demonstrate the compatibility of SOSIP-TSE technology with porphyrins and phthalocyanines, confirm the importance of oriented antiparallel gradients to minimize charge recombination, and show that electronics rather than the size matter to template stack exchange.