• J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2019;22:567-575. Probe cocktail to assess transporter function in Sandwich-Cultured Human Hepatocytes. Guo C, Brouwer KLR, Brouwer KR, Stewart PW, Mosley C. PubMed
  • Mol Pharmacol. 2019;96:158-167. Severe hepatotoxicity of Mithramycin therapy caused by altered expression of hepatocellular bile transporters. Sissung TM, Huang PA, Hauke RJ, McCrea EM, Peer CJ, Barbier RH, Strope JD, Ley AM, Zhang M, Hong JA, Venzon D, Jackson JP, Brouwer KR, Grohar P, Glod J, Widemann BC, Heller T, Schrump DS, Figg WD. PubMed
  • Methods Mol Biol. 2019;1981:75-85. The C-DILI™ assay: An integrated in vitro approach to predict cholestatic hepatotoxicity. Jackson JP, Brouwer KR. PubMed
  • Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2018;104:916-932. Can Bile Salt Export Pump inhibition testing in drug discovery and development reduce liver injury risk? An International Transporter Consortium perspective. Kenna JG, Taskar KS, Battista C, Bourdet DL, Brouwer KLR, Brouwer KR, Dai D, Funk C, Hafey MJ, Lai Y, Maher J, Pak YA, Pedersen JM, Polli JW, Rodrigues AD, Watkins PB, Yang K, Yucha RW; International Transporter Consortium. PubMed
  • J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2018;365:413-421. Farnesoid X receptor agonists Obeticholic Acid and Chenodeoxycholic acid increase bile acid efflux in Sandwich-Cultured Human Hepatocytes: Functional evidence and mechanisms. Guo C, LaCerte C, Edwards JE, Brouwer KR, Brouwer KLR. PubMed
  • Pharmacol Res Perspect. 2017;5(6). Comparative potency of obeticholic acid and natural bile acids on FXR in hepatic and intestinal in vitro cell models. Zhang Y, LaCerte C, Kansra S, Jackson JP, Brouwer KR, Edwards JE. PubMed
  • Toxicol Sci. 2018;161:401-411. Transient changes in hepatic physiology that alter bilirubin and bile acid transport may explain elevations in liver chemistries observed in clinical trials of GGF2 (Cimaglermin Alfa). Mosedale M, Button D, Jackson JP, Freeman KM, Brouwer KR, Caggiano AO, Eisen A, Iaci JF, Parry TJ, Stanulis R, Srinivas M, Watkins PB. PubMed
  • Pharmacol Res Perspect. 2017;5(4). Obeticholic acid, a selective farnesoid X receptor agonist, regulates bile acid homeostasis in sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes. Zhang Y, Jackson JP, St Claire RL, Freeman K, Brouwer KR, Edwards JE. PubMed
  • Drug Metab Dispos. 2017;45:1019-1026. Prediction of clinically relevant herb-drug clearance interactions using Sandwich-Cultured Human Hepatocytes: Schisandra spp. Case Study. Jackson JP, Freeman KM, Friley WW, Herman AG, Black CB, Brouwer KR, Roe AL. PubMed
  • J Pharm Sci. 2017;106:2401-2406. Prediction of hepatic efflux transporter-mediated drug interactions: When is it optimal to measure intracellular unbound fraction of inhibitors? Guo C, Yang K, Liao M, Xia CQ, Brouwer KR, Brouwer KLR. PubMed
  • J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2016;358:324-33. Prediction of altered bile acid disposition due to inhibition of multiple transporters: An integrated approach using Sandwich-Cultured Hepatocytes, Mechanistic Modeling, and Simulation. Guo C, Yang K, Brouwer KR, St Claire RL, Brouwer KL. PubMed
  • Drug Metab Dispos. 2016;44(6). Hepatocellular disposition and transporter interactions with Tolvaptan and metabolites in Sandwich-Cultured Human Hepatocytes. Lu Y, Slizgi JR, Brouwer KR, Claire RL, Freeman KM, Pan M, Brock WJ, Brouwer KL. PubMed
  • Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2016;76:1-6. Assessing natural product-drug interactions: An end-to-end safety framework. Roe AL, Paine MF, Gurley BJ, Brouwer KR, Jordan S, Griffiths JC. PubMed
  • Toxicol Sci. 2016;149:237-50. Inhibition of human hepatic bile acid transporters by Tolvaptan and metabolites: Contributing factors to drug-induced liver injury? Slizgi JR, Lu Y, Brouwer KR, St Claire RL, Freeman KM, Pan M, Brock WJ, Brouwer KL. PubMed
  • PLoS One. 2014;9:e87548. Evaluation of the endothelin receptor antagonists ambrisentan, bosentan, macitentan, and sitaxsentan as hepatobiliary transporter inhibitors and substrates in sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes. Lepist EI, Gillies H, Smith W, Hao J, Hubert C, St Claire RL, Brouwer KR, Ray AS. PubMed
  • J Biomol Screen. 2011;16:427-35. Automated applications of sandwich-cultured hepatocytes in the evaluation of hepatic drug transport. Perry CH, Smith WR, St Claire RL, Brouwer KR. PubMed
  • Drug Metab Dispos. 2010;38:276-80. An in vitro assay to assess transporter-based cholestatic hepatotoxicity using sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes. Ansede JH, Smith WR, Perry CH, St Claire RL, Brouwer KR. PubMed
  • Drug Metab Dispos. 2009;37:969-76.  Characterization of sandwich-cultured hepatocytes as an in vitro model to assess the hepatobiliary disposition of copper. Ansede JH, Wright MR, St Claire RL, Hart RW, Gefroh HA, Brouwer KR. PubMed
  • Drug Metab Dispos. 2008;36:2086-92. Effect of albumin on the biliary clearance of compounds in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes. Wolf KK, Brouwer KR, Pollack GM, Brouwer KL. PubMed


Durham, United States


Last update: October 2021