The American Anti-Vivisection Society was formed by Caroline Earle White and Mary Frances Lovell at a special meeting of the Women’s Branch of the Pennsylvania Society to Prevent Cruelty to Animals (WBPSPCA) in 1883 in Philadelphia initially to regulate, but soon to seek the abolition of, the increasing practice of medical and scientific experimentation on live animals. White became the Corresponding Secretary of the Society contributing, like Lovell, to the Journal of Zoöphily, published by the AAVS and WBPSPCA, of which she was Editor and Lovell Contributing Editor. See White's “History of the Antivivisection Movement” Journal of Zoöphily. XXII. 12 (December 1912): 179-83.
In her Introduction to The Golden Rule Cook Book Freshel uses the refusal to consume animals as the fundamental paradigm of intersecting social transformations: “Stop and think for a moment what the world would be like to-day if it were Vegetarian. If the world were Vegetarian, the endless caravans of doomed creatures would not be ambling to the shambles [slaughterhouse]; not a man would be brutalised by the daily slaughter of hundreds of gentle creatures; not a woman would be engaged in sorting edible parts from the dissected carcasses, making all red around her; not a child would be standing deep in offal, seeking useful bits of dead bodies. … therefore, not a dog would be maltreated, not a cat selfishly deserted to starve, not a horse cruelly beaten, and not a vivisectionist could be found on the face of the earth!”