Open Access

Introduction to Open Access

The two main ways to succeed to Open Access to scholarly communication were expressed in Budapest in 2002 in the form of the Golden Road and Green Road.

THE GOLD ROAD

The Gold Road is often presented as the ideal way to achieve the goals of Open Access. The authors publish their articles in journals that are completely free of charge for readers, with no subscription fees.

The funding of these Open Access journals is obviously the crux of the matter. Several economic funding models exist, including total or partial funding of the journal by public or private research organizations. Other journals ask the author, or its institution, to contribute to publication costs by paying a fee known as the Article Processing Charges (APC).

The Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) authorises the use of research funds to cover the APCs. The University of Geneva has also created a research funding for publishing as a pilot project for 2018.

The Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ) lists the various journals of the Golden Road.

This model often ends for an institution to pay twice for the same content, once for the subscription, and a second time by paying for APCs. This character of "double dipping" leads many institutions to refuse to pay for APCs in such journals.

One kind of Gold Road, the hybrid journals

Many commercial publishers now offer hybrid journals that are still paid for by subscription, but where Open Access articles can be found if authors have agreed to pay for APCs.

This model often ends for an institution to pay twice for the same content, once for the subscription, and a second time by paying for APCs. This character of "double dipping" leads many institutions to refuse to pay for APCs in such journals.

THE GREEN ROAD

The Green Road is an approach to the dissemination of scientific publications by research institutions themselves. It combines publication in traditional journals (by subscription) and simultaneous deposit of a copy of the publication in an institutional repository. The deposit of the final manuscript before publication is also an increasingly common practice.

The commercial publishers generally accepts the Green Road, although some require that an embargo period be respected after publication and/or that their final PDFs is not used. Conversely other publishers require the researches to use their PDF files or deposit them directly in an archive (for example Pubmed) on behalf of the authors.

The web site SHERPA/RoMEO tries to make an inventory of the politics of the different publishers.

One kind of Green Road, the Archive ouverte UNIGE

The Archive ouverte UNIGE is the institutional repository of the University of Geneva in which the researchers of the institution must deposit a copy of all their publications.

Both preprints (final manuscript before peer review) and author postprints (post-reviewing manuscript) as well as published versions (Version of record or editor postprint) can be deposited, with an embargo period if necessary.

publication Process

 

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